I. Statement of Policy
On January 31, 1990 the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Final Rule (29 CFR 1910.1450, hereinafter referred to as the Laboratory Standard and attached as Appendix A), which regulates exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.
It is the policy of Columbia University to comply with all applicable requirements of the Laboratory Standard by addressing the unique exposure conditions under which laboratory work is performed, and to protect laboratory workers from adverse health effects that may result from their work in laboratories, regardless of what hazardous substances are used. It is also the policy of the University to fully comply with all other statutes and regulations that pertain to laboratory operations and facilities.
Accordingly, Columbia University has implemented a comprehensive training and safety program to inform employees not only of potential hazards to which they may be exposed, but also of whatever specific procedures and equipment are required to control and minimize exposure to hazardous substances. Departments and Administrative Units are required to provide this health and safety training information to their laboratory employees and to comply with the University's Chemical Hygiene Plan as mandated by OSHA. The University Office of Environmental Health and Safety provides university-wide assistance to accomplish this goal.
The Chief Executive Officer has ultimate responsibility for chemical hygiene within the institution, and, with other administrators, provides continuing support for institutional chemical hygiene.
The University Laboratory Safety Committee is responsible for ensuring that the University complies with the Chemical Hygiene Plan and that the Plan accurately and completely meets institutional needs and regulatory mandates. The University Labo ratory Safety Committee shall consist of the following officers or their high level designees: Provost of the University (Chair of the Committee) Senior Vice President Vice President for Facilities Management Vice President for Arts and Sciences General C ounsel Dean, School of Engineering and Applied Science Director, Office of Environmental Health and Safety University Medical Officer Chemical Hygiene Officer Chairs of: Physics Chemistry Biology Chemical Engineering Electrical Engineering Directors of: L amont-Doherty Geological Observatory Nevis Laboratory
The Committee will administer and enforce the provisions of the University's Chemical Hygiene Plan, and will revise or modify it as necessary.
The Environmental and Occupational Health Office will: Provide data relative to regulated substances and their proper use; Provide technical support to the University Laboratory Safety Committee; Develop and update the Chemical Hygiene Pla n on behalf of the Committee; Conduct laboratory surveys, including air monitoring; Maintain all relevant records (training, air monitoring surveys, departmental notification procedures, etc.); Help Principal Investigators develop precautions and provide assistance in complying with the Chemical Hygiene Plan; Coordinate repair of improperly functioning safety equipment with Facilities Management; Accompany any regulatory inspector having jurisdiction over health and safety matters; Enforce, on behalf of a nd in concert with the Laboratory Safety Committee, the provisions of the Chemical Hygiene Plan; Maintain the laboratory Certificate of Fitness holder permits required by the New York City Fire Department and coordinate all such applications, exam schedul es, and payment of fees.
The Principal Investigator will: Have overall responsibility for chemical hygiene in his/her laboratories; Ensure that laboratory employees are informed of, and follow, the chemical hygiene rules and procedures; Ensure that appropriate personal protective equipment (gloves, lab coats, goggles, etc.) and health and safety equipment (blast shields, spill control material, etc.) are available and in use as required; Ensure that appropriate chemical hygiene training has been provided; Conduct a visu al survey of laboratories on a periodic basis to ensure safe working conditions (See Appendix B for a recommended checklist); Immediately report improperly functioning equipment directly to EH&S.
The Project Director, who is designated by the Principal Investigator, will: Have primary responsibility for chemical hygiene procedures for specific operations outlined by the Principal Investigator, including the procurement and use of necessa ry health and safety items; Immediately report improperly functioning equipment to the Principal Investigator or EH&S.
The Laboratory employee will:
The Facilities Management Office will:
The General Counsel's Office will:
The University Health Service will provide medical consultation and monitoring as required by the Laboratory Standard.
Chairs and Directors will:
III. Laboratory Facility
All laboratory facilities at Columbia shall be designed, equipped, and operated in compliance with the New York City Fire Department talent laboratory regulation (Directive 1-66: "Regulations for the Storage and Use of Chemicals, Acids and Gases in College, University, Hospital, Research and Commercial Laboratories," a copy of which is attached as Appendix C) and have:
EH&S personnel will regularly inspect and test eyewashes at least once every 3 months and safety showers and fume hoods once every year. Fire extinguishers within and outside the laboratory shall be checked every 6 months by EH&S. Malfunctioning safety equipment detected by laboratory personnel during attempted use or departmental laboratory surveys and discharged fire extinguishers should be reported immediately to the EH&S of five for coordination of prompt repair or replacement.
The quality and quantity of local exhaust ventilation shall be evaluated on installation and whenever a change in local ventilation devices is made. Hood face velocity shall be periodically measured by EH&S (at least yearly) and upon request.
The University Chemical Hygiene Plan has been developed to protect employees and students of Columbia University from exposure to hazardous or potentially hazardous laboratory chemicals through the implementation of the provisions outlined below. These provisions, designed to comply with the requirements of the OSHA Laboratory Standard, include such elements as general laboratory procedures, engineering controls, chemical procurement, distribution and storage, environmental monitoring, and employee information and training. In order to minimize the hazards of chemical exposures, the following provisions shall be implemented for all work involving hazardous or potentially hazardous substances.
All laboratory personnel who handle hazardous chemicals must comply with the following standard operating procedures. In addition, laboratory Project Directors and Principal Investigators must develop written safety protocols for any research projects involving specific hazards of a particular chemical or class of chemicals. These written safety protocols must be maintained in the laboratory, used in laboratory training, and made available upon request to laboratory workers. Please refer to Appendices N and O regarding standard operating procedures for "high-hazard" chemicals and physical hazards in the laboratory.
Avoid unnecessary or routine exposure to chemicals by any route (inhalation, skin/eyes, ingestion). Be alert to circumstances that can result in inadvertent exposure. Bending down to clean up a spill of an extremely volatile liquid, for example, may result in an inhalation exposure. Chemicals can be absorbed through the skin when clothing, shoes, or lab coats are contaminated with chemicals.
Do not attempt to identify chemicals by smell or taste. Never use mouth suction for pipetting or starting a siphon.
Avoid eating, drinking, gum chewing, or the application of cosmetics in areas where laboratory chemicals are present. Wash hands before conducting these activities. Avoid storage, handling or consumption of food or beverages in chemical storage areas and environmental rooms. Refrigerators, glassware, or utensils that are used for laboratory operations must not be used for any other purposes.
Engineering controls such as the laboratory fume hood and the design of closed-system experiments are the primary means of controlling or minimizing hazardous chemical releases. The following provisions shall apply:
Apparatus or operations that may discharge toxic chemicals shall be continuously vented or conducted into local exhaust devices.
Engage only in operations for which the quality of the available ventilation system is appropriate. Factors to consider include the toxicity, quantity, and rate of evaporation of the chemical(s), type of procedure, and frequency of exposure. For example, use a fume hood for operations that might result in the release of toxic vapors or dusts. Such operations include the use of volatile substances, operations that may result in the generation of aerosols, and any manipulation, handling, or reaction that may result in the uncontrollable release of the substance. As a rule of thumb, use a fume hood or other local ventilation device when working with any appreciably volatile substance with a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) or Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of less than 50 PPM or when working with any volatile hazardous chemical (those with vapor pressures above 20 mm Hg). Procedures involving moderately or slightly toxic chemicals (those with PELs or TLVs greater than 100 PPM and 500 PPM respectively) may have to be conducted in a fume hood depending on the quantity involved and the rate of evaporation. Permissible Exposure Limits are exposure standards mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and are legally enforceable. Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) are exposure standards set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). (See glossary, attached as Appendix D.)
Use only those fume hoods for which an average face velocity of 100 FPM at a sash height of 12 inches has been confirmed and noted on the fume hood by EH&S. Do not use fume hoods that are posted as "OUT OF SERVICE-DO NOT USE THIS HOOD."
Keep sash openings to the height specified by EH&S to maximize flow and minimize operator exposure.
Minimize materials that are stored in hoods and do not allow materials or apparatus to block baffles, vents, or air flow. Sources of emissions should be kept at least 6 inches inside the hoods.
Ensure that fume hoods that can be individually controlled by an on/off switch are left on when the hood is used for the storage of toxic substances, or if it is uncertain whether adequate general laboratory ventilation will be continuously maintained.
Do not allow the release of toxic substances in environmental rooms (cold and warm rooms) since these have recirculated atmospheres that may allow for a dangerous build-up of air contaminants as well as provide an ignition source for flammable vapors.
Use glove boxes that have been smoke-tested, tagged, and approved by EH&S to ensure that negative air pressure is maintained.
Do not add to or modify local exhaust ventilation devices without the prior written approval of EH&S.
Handle and store laboratory glassware with care. Do not use damaged glassware. Discard broken glass in the designated glass waste container. Use extra care with Dewars flasks and other evacuated glass apparatus. Shield or wrap them to contain chemicals and fragments should implosion occur. Use equipment only for its designated purpose.
Avoid practical jokes or other behavior that might confuse, startle, or distract another worker.
Confine long hair and loose clothing. Wear shoes at all times in the laboratory. Do not wear shorts or open-toed shoes in the laboratory.
Keep work areas clean and uncluttered. Clean up the work area upon completion of an operation.
Clearly label and properly store all chemicals and equipment.
Contact lenses are prohibited when chemical vapors are present or when a greater than negligible risk of a splash to the eyes exists. However, contact lenses may only be worn in conjunction with tight-fitting goggles for the lowest risk activities
If possible, do not conduct hazardous operations or procedures alone. If it is not possible to have someone working with you, inform Security and ask to be checked at regular intervals.
Leave laboratory lights on when an operation is unattended. Place an appropriate sign on the door, briefly stating the nature of the experiment, contact person, and phone number. Provide for the containment of the toxic substances in the event of failure of an engineering control such as a fume hood or utility service. For example, working stills should be shielded with a blast shield and the hood sash should be lowered to the minimum working distance.
Wear the appropriate personal protective equipment (goggles, gloves, faceshield, etc.) designated by the Principal Investigator.
Thoroughly wash areas of exposed skin before leaving the laboratory.
Departments shall be responsible for maintaining an inventory of materials ordered or on hand, and must produce inventory control records at the request of regulatory agencies or the Chemical Hygiene Officer.
Before a substance is used, information on proper handling, storage, and disposal should be made known to those who will be exposed to it. A Material Safety Data Sheet (SDS), accompanying the shipment of the material, is one such source of information(sampleSDS is attached in Appendix E). These Safety Data Sheets are maintained at the receiving point (such as Chemstore, Biology Stockroom, etc.). In addition, the EH&S office has Safety Data Sheets on file on a computerized data base that contains approximately 54,000 Safety Data Sheets. In the event thatSDS information is incomplete, or in cases where the chemical is generated by the laboratory itself, additional informational material may be necessary and must be provided before the operation begins. Many health and safety reference books are available in the EH&S library as well as in the Departmental libraries for such use, and may be consulted at any time by any laboratory worker.
Whenever possible, all chemical shipments must be received and logged in at designated departmental locations (such as Chemstore, Biology Stockroom, etc.) in order to satisfy inventory control requirements. Shipments may not be received directly by a Principal Investigator, Project Director, laboratory worker, or student.
Expiration dates must be clearly marked for materials known to deteriorate or to become unstable or reactive, including:
Stored chemicals must be examined periodically (at least annually) for deterioration and container integrity. Dated chemicals must be disposed of before expiration. Since ethers form explosive peroxides over time, they must be disposed of either 12 months after date of receipt or 6 months after being opened, whichever comes first.
When chemicals are hand-carried, they should be placed in a suitable outside container or bucket. "Freight-only" elevators should be used if possible. Dumbwaiters must be used whenever they are provided.
IN STOCKROOMS OR STOREROOMS:
Hazardous substances shall be stored so that incompatible substances are properly segregated. Refer to the recommended "Storage Scheme" in Appendix F.
Flammable materials (those with Cashpoints <100 F) must be stored in premises that fully comply with the New York City Fire Department Directive 1-66.
(flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers, unstable/reactives)
may be stored only in amounts that comply with the New York City Fire
Department "Laboratory Permit" posted on the entrance of each
laboratory. (See Appendix G for a sample permit.)
A FLAMMABLE GAS sign
must be posted at the entrance of the laboratory. Acids must be stored
so that the container does not contact bare metal.
The EH&S of five
periodically conducts laboratory air monitoring surveys. Historical
monitoring data have indicated that airborne levels of hazardous
chemicals at Columbia University are well below the Permissible
Exposure Limits mandated by OSHA. Thus, regular monitoring of airborne
concentrations is not usually required.
shall conduct a visual survey of their laboratories on a periodic basis
(at least quarterly) to ensure safe working conditions.
Safe laboratory working conditions require:
Personal protective equipment (PPE) shall be used as necessary to augment the protection provided by engineering controls, experiment design, standard operating procedures, and good work practices. PPE should not be used as the primary means of controlling hazardous chemical exposures! Selection of PPE shall take into account a variety of factors including the identification of the hazards and task-specific conditions, the routes of exposure (inhalation, skin absorption, eye or skin contact, and /or ingestion), and the performance of the PPE materials in providing a barrier to these hazards. PPE selection should be specified by the Principal Investigator or Project Director in conjunction with the EH&S office. Respirator use in the laboratory must be approved by the EH&S office and must comply with respiratory protection requirements specified by OSHA 1910.134. (See Appendix H.)
general, the following PPE procedures shall apply:
Certain situations or exposure conditions may warrant medical consultation or monitoring of laboratory employees, which will be conducted by physicians at the Columbia University Health Service at no cost to the affected employee(s). Medical monitoring of laboratory personnel, including follow-up exams, shall occur when:
Emergency treatment is available twenty-four hours a day. Such treatment is coordinated through the Security Office, and includes the dispatching via radio of an ambulance staffed by certified Emergency Service Technicians and/or transportation to a hospital.
DEPARTMENTAL EMPLOYEE ACCIDENT REPORTS (appendix I) are required in the event of any job-related injury or illness involving an University employee. The Depar Mental Accident Report is retained in Personnel Services, 315 Dodge Hall, and a copy is forwarded to the EH&S office. The copy is reviewed to determine whether further industrial hygiene and safety investigations are warranted, or whether training programs should be revised or modified.
LABORATORY HEALTH AND SAFETY TRAINING RECORDS are maintained in the EH&S office. Any laboratory health and safety training conducted by Department or Administrative Units must be documented and must contain the following information: date, training outline, length of training, persons conducting the training, and employee's printed name, signature, and Social Security number. A copy of the information must be sent to the EH&S office. For training specifications, see the "Employee Information and Training" section below.
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE DISPOSAL REQUEST FORMS and manifest records are retained by the EH&S office.
MEDICAL RECORDS are retained by the University Health Service in accordance with New York State and federal regulations.
DEPARTMENTAL "CHAIN OF NOTIFICATION" PERSONNEL AND PROCEDURES are retained by the Department or Administrative Unit and a copy is also filed with EH&S.
CHEMICAL EMERGENCY RELEASES AND INCIDENT REPORTS are prepared and maintained by the EH&S office.
INVENTORY CONTROL RECORDS pertaining to hazardous chemicals are maintained at the Department and will be made available to the EH&S office upon request.
The entrance to every laboratory must have the following signs prominently posted
LABORATORY POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES NO| SMOKING |
The following signs must be posted at the laboratory entrance if any materials listed below are used or stored in the laboratory:
These and most other recommended and required signs (including emergency telephone labels) are available from the EH&Soffice upon request. In addition, a copy of the New York City Fire Department laboratory permit for each laboratory must be prominently posted at the laboratory entrance. The laboratory permit lists the maximum storage amounts of flammable liquids, flammable solids, oxidizers, and unstable/reactives permitted in each laboratory. Warning signs shall be posted at areas or near equipment here special or unusual hazards exist, including laser hazards, high voltage hazards, etc.
Location signs shall be prominently posted to indicate safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment, exits, and where food and beverage consumption and storage are permitted
All chemical containers must be clearly labeled with the chemical identity and the major hazard as well as the manufacturer's name and address. Waste containers must be clearly labeled with the chemical identity, the major hazard and the name of the generating research group. Squirt bottles must also be labeled.
New York City Fire Department (NYCFD) regulations require the presence of a Certificate of Fitness (C of F.) holder in every laboratory whenever it is in operation. C of F. holders are responsible for knowing the NYCFD laboratory regulations (flammable liquid storage limits, chemical storage requirements, general laboratory safety, etc.) and for monitoring compliance within their own laboratory. Ultimate responsibility for safety provisions and liability for each laboratory, however, shall be under the supervision of the Principal Investigator.
The University Laboratory Safety Committee has decided that, due to the prolonged and irregular operating hours of many laboratories, all graduate students in the laboratory sciences who work in a laboratory unit requiring a permit for operation from the NYCFD will henceforth be required to pass the C of F examination before beginning work in an University laboratory.
The Office of Environmental and Occupational Health will provide regularly scheduled training sessions at the beginning of each semester for C of F applicants and will arrange for on-site administration of the examination to the extent possible.
Weekly inspections of the laboratories and corridors will be conducted by the Certificate of Fitness holder on his/her floors. These inspections must include, but are not limited to the following:
LABORS TORY INSPECTION:
Means of egress from the laboratory must not be blocked. An unobstructed path to the exit must be maintained at all times. Access to emergency equipment, safety showers, eyewashes, fire extinguisher, first aid kits, etc. must not be obstructed. Exposed chemical storage must be limited to daily needs only. Chemicals not required for the procedure(s) in progress are to be promptly stored per the requirements of FD Directive 1-66 (R).
Fire extinguishers must be tagged, charged and dated.
Exit signs on the floors
Upon hearing the fire alarm:
Upon discovering a fire:
FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT: Extinguishment should only be attempted on small fires that can be extinguished with the available portable fire extinguisher by an individual who has been trained in its use. In general:
Remove the extinguisher from its bracket, maintain the means of egress to your back to provide a means of escape in the event the fire is not extinguished. Remember "PASS" PULL the pin AIM nozzle at the base of the fire SQUEEZE the handle to discharge the product S HOOT the product at the base of the fire, moving the nozzle in a sweeping motion from side to side.
DO NOT STOP THE DISCHARGE OF PRODUCT FROM THE EXTINGUISHER UNTIL YOU HAVE BACKED AWAY FROM THE FIRE SOURCE.
Upon extinguishment, the University Security office (x99) and EH&Soffice (x4-8749) must be notified for inspection and the proper removal of burned and/or contaminated materials.
FIRE DRESS: Scheduled fire drills will be conducted three times a year per the requirements of the laws of New York State, Chapter 392 and New York City Fire Prevention Directive 9-64(R).
require prompt action to prevent or reduce undesirable effects.
Laboratory employees must be able to immediately take control of the
situation and quickly assess the existing and potential hazards and
carry out the appropriate response actions. Immediate hazards of fire,
explosion, and release of toxic vapors and gases are of prime concern.
SPILL CONTROL EQUIPMENT: The Principal Investigator shall make available appropriate spill control items in each laboratory. Such items may include commercial spill control products as absorbent pads, pillows, rolls, booms, etc. and/or other suitable neutralizing or absorbing items such as sodium bicarbonate for acid spills, boric acid or citric acid for alkali spills, or activated charcoal for solvent spills. The Environmental Health and Safety Office is available for assistance in selecting proper spill control equipment.
SPILL CONTROL FOR ACIDS, ALKALIES,AND SOLVENTS: As a general guideline, spills of less than 1 liter of these materials are considered small. However, spills of particularly hazardous substances, regardless of the amount spilled, may require immediate EH&RS notification and assistance. Particularly hazardous substances include select carcinogens, reproductive toxins and substances with a high degree of acute toxicity. Whenever a spill occurs, treat the spill as a potentially
Respirators may be necessary even in a small spill clean-up, depending on the substance. Only those employees approved by EH&S to wear respirators can attempt spill clean-up requiring respiratory protection.
ii) Use the proper spill clean-up material. Commercial pads, pillows, booms, rolls, etc. are available from several manufacturers, but vary in what substances they control. For example, many commercial absorbents cannot be used with hydrofluoric acid spill clean-up. In addition, to commercial absorbent pads, pillows, booms, etc. the following can be used:
iii) Confine the spill to a small area. Do not let it spread. Dispose of all spill-clean up material in an appropriately marked hazardous waste bag (available from EH&S) and label the contents. Fill out an incident report form and contact EH&Sfor follow-up and to arrange correct disposal.
Incident report forms are carefully analyzed by EH&S with the results distributed to all who might benefit. EH&S Safety Bulletins are the most common means of such distribution. (See the attached sample, Appendix I).
MERCURY SPILLS: Regardless of the size of the spill, you must contact EH&S. EH&S has a mercury vapor analyzer to measure airborne concentrations of mercury and a vacuum designed specifically to clean-up mercury spills. For tiny amounts (< 2 cc) of spilled mercury, use available mercury spill control kits or mercury spill amalgam to minimize vaporization while awaiting EH&S. Never use laboratory sinks or drains to dispose of mercury or mercury-contaminated waste.
BIOHAZARD SPILLS: Quickly assess whether there are any injured persons and attend to any person who may have been contaminated. Remove contaminated clothing immediately and decontaminate. (EH&S is available for assistance in the selection of proper disinfectants.)
Close the laboratory door.
Follow the notification procedures for your laboratory. In case of small spills (<1L), follow the departmental "chain of notification personnel" procedures. Report large spills (>1L) to Security (x99) who will then coordinate spill response with EH&Soffice.
To clean up the spill and decontaminate the area, wear personal protective equipment (labcoat, mask, goggles and 2 pairs of gloves) and:
RADlOACTlVE SPlLLS: (as excerpted from the "Radiation Safety Code of Columbia University, 4th Edition, 1987", pp. 8-9, which in its entirety applies to work with these substances):
LEAKING COMPRESSED CAS CYLINDERS: Occasionally, a cylinder or one of its component parts develops a leak. Such leaks often occur around the manifold in areas such as valve threads, safety device, valve stem, and valve outlet. If a leak is suspected, use a flammable gas leak detector or soapy water or other suitable solution. If the leak cannot be remedied by tightening a valve gland or a packing nut, follow the departmental notification procedures and also notify EHRS and the supplier. Laboratory employees should never attempt to repair a leak at the valve threads or safety devices.
The following are generic standard operating procedures:
Malfunctioning laboratory equipment that presents a health and safety hazard, e.g. mantles that overheat, should be immediately removed from service and labeled as malfunctioning. The equipment should be promptly repaired or discarded.
Facilities equipment failure such as circuit breaker overload, ventilating equipment, or door closers, should be reported to the Facilities Management Customer Service at x 4-2275.
Accidents or injuries that occur in the laboratory and that require medical treatment must be reported immediately to the Department or Administrative Unit and to EH&S. Accident records shall be written and retained. For any injury which appears to require emergency first aid, call Security (x99) and request an ambulance.
Accidents and spills: Whenever there is skin or eye contact with a chemical, promptly flush the affected skin area with water and remove any contaminated clothing, and seek medical attention. Any clothing that has been significantly contaminated should be removed immediately.
When there is acute inhalation of a hazardous material, escort victim to a source of fresh air; seek medical attention if necessary.
The aims of the waste disposal program are to assure that minimal harm to people, other organisms, and the environment will result from the disposal of waste laboratory chemicals, as well as to ensure compliance with all applicable city, state and federal waste disposal regulations.
As a generator of hazardous waste, the University is legally required to institute a hazardous waste minimization program to reduce the volume or toxicity of hazardous waste. All Departments and Administrative Units must reduce the volume or toxicity of hazardous waste whenever possible. Waste minimization methods include:
Use purchasing methods to reduce the quantity and variety of products. Reduce to a minimum the number of different products used. Implement micro-level or small-scale operations. Order chemicals in smaller containers, and order only the amount of material needed for a project. Contact EH&S for a list of companies that will ship chemicals in small quantities, such as milligram amounts, at competitive prices.
Substitute less toxic materials whenever possible. An example of substitution is the use of non-toxic, non-flammable scintillation cocktails.
Properly segregate and consolidate wastes. Never mix a hazardous waste with a nonhazardous waste as this renders the whole mixture hazardous.
Recycle, reclaim, and reuse hazardous materials whenever possible.
Improve housekeeping practices to reduce the production of waste. For example, arrange for prompt repairs of leaking equipment or spill cleanup.
It is the responsibility of each department or Principal Investigator to develop and implement procedures to ensure safe, efficient and legal waste disposal practices, consistent with the University's hazardous waste program. Each Department will set up its own specific handling procedures in coordination with the EH&S office. The following procedures specify how waste is to be collected, segregated, stored, and removed:
Deposit chemical waste in appropriately labeled waste containers. Waste containers must be clearly labeled with the chemical category (i.e., flammable solvents, corrosive, etc.), list of contents, and the name and telephone number of the generating research group.
Never mix incompatible materials in the same waste container. For example, do not mix acid and solvent waste. Segregate containers of incompatible materials.
All hazardous waste disposal must be coordinated through EH&S. To initiate disposal of hazardous waste, send a completed Chemical Waste Disposal Request Form (see Appendix K) to the EH&S office. There are regularly scheduled bulk solvent and laboratory lab pack pick-ups. Special pick-ups can be arranged by EH&S as needed.
Disposal of hazardous waste chemicals bv pouring them down the drain or by adding them to mixed refuse for landfill burial is absolutely forbidden! Such chemicals include: concentrated acids or bases organic solvents aqueous solutions containing toxic organic solutes heavy metals radioactive isotopes highly toxic, malodorous, or lachrymatory substances
In addition, substances that might interfere with the biological activity of waste water treatment plants, create fire or explosion hazards, or cause structural damage or impede water flow must not be poured down the drain. If there is any doubt as to what chemicals may go down the drain or into the solid refuse stream, contact the EH&S office for assistance.
Fume hoods must not be used for evaporative disposal of volatile chemicals.
Unlabeled containers of chemicals and solutions should undergo prompt disposal; if partially used, they should not be reopened since some substances form unstable decomposition products.
Before the termination of a research project, chemicals that have been used or processed during the project must be properly disposed of or returned to storage. This procedure should be coordinated through the Departmental Office or Administrative Unit with EH&S. Responsibility and payment for proper disposal of all accumulated hazardous chemicals will subsequently devolve on the department, school, or unit.
EH&S -approved disposal by recycling, consolidation, or chemical decontamination or deactivation (neutralization, precipitation, etc.) should be used whenever possible.
Empty, uncapped chemical containers, free of visible residue and contamination, can be placed in the hallway to be taken out with the regular trash.
A comprehensive training program is the single most important aspect of employee protection. The aim of the institutional training program is to ensure that all individuals at risk are adequately informed about the operations and substances in their laboratory, their risks, and what to do if an accident occurs.
Department and Administrative Units are required to provide health and safety training and information to their laboratory employees.
The EH&S office provides university-wide assistance to accomplish this goal. Employee training shall include the methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in the work area, including the control measures Columbia University has instituted; the physical and health hazards associated with chemicals in the work area; appropriate protection measures including emergency procedures; and the details of the Columbia University Chemical Hygiene Plan. Copies of the Chemical Hygiene Plan have been distributed to every laboratory and Principal Investigator; additional copies are located in Departmental Offices and the EH&S Office. All training must follow the training outline in Appendix L.
In addition, it is the responsibility of the Principal Investigator to inform his/her laboratory employees of specific hazards related to the work or research conducted in his/her laboratory, as well as any associated methods of control for dealing with those specific hazards.
All employees must be trained at the time of initial assignment and prior to the use of a new hazardous chemical or procedure. Refresher training shall be determined by the Principal Investigator.
All training must be documented and contain the following information:
i) Date, location,
length of training program
Certain kinds of
research, because of the materials, equipment, or operations they
require, or because of the disposal materials they generate, or for
other reasons, may present issues of laboratory safety that require
prior approval of the Laboratory Safety Committee.
In order to assure compliance with the mandated policies of the Columbia University Laboratory Safety Policy, a series of corrective actions will address policy infractions in order to provide a mechanism to ensure compliance. Poor safety practices and inadequate counseling and training can result in personal injury, property damage, legal liabilities, and lost productivity.
Any practice that violates any provision of this Policy must be immediately reported to the Chemical Hygiene of finer, who may refer it to the Chair of the Laboratory Safety Committee, for appropriate action which may lead to cessation of laboratory op erations, revocation of laboratory privileges, and/or termination of employment.
Laboratory Standards January 18,1991
I. Chemical Inventory/Storage
All chemical containers should be clearly labeled and stored according to the following regulations:
1. Flammable Liquids
2. Flammable Solids
3. Oxidizing Materials
4. Unstable/Reactive Materials
Compressed flammable gases
(Hoot hydrocarbons) cannot be stored; must be in ongoing operation
6. Acids & Bases
Should be stored separately
7. Radioactive/Biohazardous Material
Store in labeled areas
II. Waste Management
Waste containers should be clearly labeled with:
1) Chemical Category (e.g.
Acceptable containers for waste are as follows:
1. Flammable Solvent glass
bottles or 5-gallon metal cans
III. Safety/Emergency Response
The following items should be available in each laboratory:
1. Safety Shower within 25 ft.
of any point in the lab
Safe laboratory working conditions require:
Clear Walkways No slipping/tripping hazards such as bottles on the floor or extension cords across walkways Unobstructed exits
Ready Access to Safety Equipment Unobstructed fire extinguishers, eyewashes, safety showers
Equipment in Safe Operating Condition, including Electrical wires in good condition Pumps/Hg bubblers vented to fume hoods Belt guards on pumps All equipment electrically grounded Outlet strips off the floor Refrigerators properly designated (food/chemicals/flammables)
"Reasonably neat/clean counter tops and shelves
1) The penetration of a substance into the body of another
Action level - a concentration designated by OSHA for a specific substance, and calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average, which initiates certain required activities such as exposure monitoring and medical surveillance
Acute effect - An adverse effect upon the human body following a short exposure to a dangerous substance or materials. An acute reaction or illness occurs immediately after exposure or over a short term (usually less than 24 hours)
ACGIH - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; a professional organization composed of personnel in governmental agencies or educational institutions engaged in occupational safety and health/industrial hygiene programs ; develops and publishes recommended occupational exposure limits (TLVs) for hundreds of chemical substances and physical agents
Acid - a corrosive compound with a low pH (6.0 or below), which in the presence of certain solvents or water, reacts to produce hydrogen ions; turns litmus paper red; reacts with an alkali (base) to form a salt and water
Aerosols - suspension of liquid droplets or solid particles in air so small as to remain dispersed for a period of time
Alkali - corrosive compounds with a high pH (8.0 or above) which have the ability to react with an acid to form a salt and water; also referred to as bases; alkali splashes in the eyes are potentially more damaging than acid eye splashes; alkalies turn litmus paper blue
Alkali metals - water-reactive metals such as lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and berrylium
Alpha particles - particulate ionizing radiation consisting of helium nuclei (two protons and two neutrons) traveling at high speed; extremely toxic if inhaled or ingested
Anhydrous - free from water; ex: anhydrous ammonia
Asbestos - a
naturally-occurring mineral used extensively in fireproofing, as an
insulator against heat, cold, noise and electricity and as a
reinforcing agent; defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as
any material containing more than 1 percent asbestos by weight
Autoignition temperature - the minimum temperature at which a material will ignite without an lgnltlon source
Beta particles - high speed electrons produced from radioactive decay which have the ability to penetrate skin and clothing
Biocide - any substance designed to destroy living organisms such as insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides; when absorbed will cause illness or death or growth retardation or shortening of life
Biohazard - biological hazard; infectious agents presenting a risk or potential risk to the well being of humans or other animals either directly through infection or indirectly through disruption of the environment
Biological hazardous wastes - substances of human or animal origin, other than food wastes, which are to be disposed of and could harbor pathogenic organisms including, but not limited to, pathological specimens such as tissues, blo od elements, excreta, secretions and related substances; includes wastes from health care facilities and laboratories
BLEVE - Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion; explosion believed to result from rapid depressurization of a hot, saturated liquid; the temperature of the hot liquid must be above the superheat limit temperature at 1 atmosphere, and the drop in (tank) pressure must be very rapid; this acronym has now come to stand for virtually any rupture of a tank of liquid or liquefied compressed gas and has been expanded to include all vapor explosions
Boiling point - the temperature at which a liquid changes to vapor state at a given pressure usually at sea level; materials with low boiling points are fire and explosion hazards
Breach - any opening in a hazardous materials container through which hazardous material can or does escape
Canister - air-purifying container filled with sorbents and catalysts that remove gases and vapors from air drawn through the air-purifying unit; the canister may also contain an aerosol (particulate) filter to remove solid or liquid parti cles
Carbon monoxide - chemical asphyxiant; odorless, colorless toxic gas generated by any process involving the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substance and is also a by-product of many chemical reactions
Carboy - large glass bottle, up to 15 gallons, in a protective device, usually a crate; may also be a small plastic drum that ranges from 10 - 15 gallons
Carcinogen - substance known or suspected of causing cancer; see "Select carcinogen"
Catalyst - substance which changes the speed of a chemical reaction but undergoes no permanent change itself
Caustic - A corrosive chemical with a high pH (basic or alkaline)
Central Nervous System (CNS) -Body system made up of the brain and spinal cord.
"C" or Ceiling -maximum concentration of a chemical, dust, or physical agent that is allowed at any time under federal standards, not to be exceeded even momentarily
CAS - Chemical Abstracts Services; a Columbus, Ohio organization which indexes information published in "Chemical Abstracts" by the American Chemical Society and provides index guides by which information about particular substan ces may be located in the Abstracts when needed; CAS numbers identify specific chemicals but not every chemical has been assigned a CAS number
cc - cubic centimeter; equal in capacity to one milliliter; a volume measurement in the metric system
CDC - Center for Disease Control; a federal agency located in Atlanta, Georgia responsible for health activities under the Environmental Protection Agency's Superfund for cleaning up hazardous wastes; offers advice on decontamination, medi cal surveillance, and treatment of contaminated victims; maintains hotline (404) 329-3311 from 8 AM to 5 PM (EST) and (404) 329-2888 evenings and weekends
CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (1980); "Superfund"
CGA - Compressed Gas Association
Chemical Name - The correct name that fully defines the chemical composition of a substance. "silica" and "ethyl cyanoacetate" are chemical names; "infusorial earth" and "cyanoacrylate adhesive" are generic names, and "Celite" and "Peavey Print Superglue" are trade names. The generic name is frequently referred to as the exact description, but it actually refers to categories such as metals or solvents
Chemical cartridge - type of absorption unit used with an air- purifying respirator for removal of vapors and gases; for example organic vapor cartridges are used for organic vapors such as toluene; acid gas cartridges are used for hydrogen chloride gas, etc.
Chemical hygiene officer - an employee who is designated by the employer, who is qualified by training or experience, to provide technical guidance in the development and implementation of the provision of the Chemical Hygiene Plan
Chemical hygiene plan - a written program developed and implemented by the employer which sets forth procedures, equipment, personal protective equipment and work practices that are capable of protecting employees from the health ha zards presented by hazardous chemicals used in that particular workplace
Chemical protective clothing (CPC) - personal protective clothing designed to provide some level of skin protection against chemical exposure
CHEMTREC - Chemical Transportation Emergency Center; a national center established by the Chemical Manufactureres Association (CMA) in Washington, DC in 1970 to relay pertinent emergency information concerning specific chemicals on request . CHEMTREC has a 24-hour toll free telephone number (800) 42s9300 intended primarily for use by those who respond to chemical transportation emergencies
Chlorates - powerful oxidizers containing chlorine and oxygen
Chromosome - Part of the cell's genetic material. Damage to chromosomes can cause harmful changes to an individual's body and may also result in birth defects
Chronic Effect - An adverse effect upon the human body which develops from a long-term or frequent exposure to a harmful substance such as a carcinogen. Chronic effects or diseases may not show up for years after exposure
CMA - Chemical Manufacturers Association
Combustion - process in which fuel is rapidly oxidized; requires fuel, oxygen, and heat (ignition source) and usually produces heat and light or other forms of energy
Combustible - term used by NFPA, DOT, OSHA to classify by Cashpoints certain liquids that will burn; generally defined as liquids that have Cashpoints above 100 F. and below 200 F
Combustible liquid (OSHA) - has a flash point at or above 100 F and below 140 F.; combustible liquids have higher flash points than do flammable liquids
Combustible liquid (DOT) - has a flash point 100 F to 200 F
Combustible gas detector (CGI) - portable, battery-powered field survey instrument used to detect the presence of combustible gas mixtures by measuring 0 to 100% of the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
Compatibility chart - chart that compares the chemical resistance of a protective clothing material against exposure to a specified chemical; generally provides degradation, penetration and permeation information
Compressed gas - material packaged in a cylinder, tank or aerosol under pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 f or other pressure parameters as identified by the US DOT
Concentration - the relative amount of a substance when combined or mixed with other substances; Example: 50 micrograms of lead in one cubic meter of air is the concentration. (50 ug/m3)
Contaminant - Poison, toxic substance - anything that makes air or water dirty or unfit for human consumption
Contact Dermatitis - (See Dermatitis) Dermatitis of the skin due to direct contact with irritating substance.
Corrosive - a material that degrades or destroys living tissue or other materials;; liquids that have a severe corrosion rate on steel may be regulated by DOT example: hydrofluoric acid
Cryogenic gas - cryogen comes from the Greek work kyros which means icy cold; cryogens are gases that must be cooled to less than -150 0F before they can be liquiefied
Cylinder - container having 1000 pounds or less in accordance with DOT specifications and generally includes any compressed gas or liquefied gas container
Dangerous When Wet - label required for certain shipped materials under DOT, ICAO, and IMO regulations; such materials may produce flammable gases when in contact with water or moisture and in some cases these gases are likely to sp ontaneously combust
DCM - Dangerous Cargo Manifest
Daughter - isotope formed by the decay of a given radioactive isotope; the daughter may be radioactive or stable
Decontamination - the removal and containment of hazardous materials by physical and chemical means
Degradation - the movement of a liquid through chemical protective clothing resulting in the molecular breakdown of the CPC due to contact with the liquid; signs of degradation include swelling, weight changes, and color changes; de gradation charts (excellent, good, fair, poor) tell how long the clothing will last
Dermal toxicity - adverse effects resulting from skin exposure to a substance
Dermatitis - Inflammation of the skin, such as redness, rash, dry or cracking skin, blisters, swelling, or pain. May result from exposure to toxic or abrasive substances
Designated area - an area which may be used for work with "select carcinogens", reproductive toxins or substances which have a high degree of acute toxicity; a designated area may be the entire laboratory or a device such as a laboratory hood
Dilution - method of reducing the concentration of a chemical, usually through the use of water, except when the possibility of a chemical reaction exists
Disposal drum - used to refer to overpack drums; proper DOT shipping name is Salvage drum
DOT - Department of Transportation; regulates transportation of chemicals and other substances
DOT Hazard Classifications - designations for specific classes of hazardous materials; example: Flammable Liquid
DOT Identification Number - four-digit identification number assigned to a ha_ardous material by the DOT
Dose - the amount of energy or substance absorbed in a unit volume or an organ or individual
dps - disintegrations per second
Dust - Airborne solid; particles that are created by work processes, such as grinding
Ecology - branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environment
Edema - a swelling of body tissues due to fluid retention
Emergency - any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers or failure of control equipment which results in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous chemical into the workplace
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency; federal agency which regulates and enforces protection of the environment; administers Clean Air Act, Clean Water Acts CERCLA, FIFRA, RCRA, TSCA and other federal environmental laws
Epidemiology - the science that deals with the study of disease (epidemics) in a population
ERT - Environmental Response Team; a group of highly trained, specialized experts available through EPA's 24-hour hotline
Etiologic agent - microorganisms or their toxins wheich may cause human disease or contaminate the environment
Evaporation rate - the rate at which a particular material will evaporate (vaporize) when compared to the rate of vaporization of a known material, generally butyl acetate or ethyl ether
Engineering controls - prevention of worker exposure to contaminants by work process changes or ventilation, rather than by requiring workers to wear protective equipment. PESH regulations require that exposure to airborne contamina nts be addressed wherever possible by engineering controls rather than by the use of respirators
Exhaust Ventilation - Removes air contaminants from workplace air by sucking them away from the breathing zones of workers by means of hoods, canopies, or ducts. Exhaust ventilation is the most efficient means of controlling air con taminants because it moves smaller air volumes with less heat loss (in winter) than general exhaust ventilation
Explosion-proof equipment - equipment enclosed in solid casing that will not provide an ignition source in the presence of flammable atmospheres
Explosive - any chemical compound, mixture or device functioning primarily by detonation or deflagration
Explosive, Class A - any of nine types of explosives as defined by DOT (Title 49 CFR 173.53 and CFR 172.101); any chemical compound, mixture or device having the primary or common purpose to function by detonation with substantial i nstantaneous release of gas and heat
Explosive, Class B - explosives as defined by DOT (Title 49 CFR 172.101 and CFR 173.88);explosives that function by rapid combustion rather than detonation; includes special fireworks, flash powders, some pyrotechnic signaling devic es, and solid or liquid propellant explosives
Explosive, Class C - certain types of explosives as defined by DOT (Title 49 CFR 172.101 and CFR 173.100) that contain Class A or Class B explosives, or both, as components, but in restricted quantities, as well as certain types of fireworks
Explosive Level - The concentrations of gas in air which can explode. It is usually expressed as a range between a "lower explosive level" (LEL) and an "upper explosive level" (UEL). It is commonly measured by an explosimeter which reads out the concentration of a possibly dangerous gas in percent per volume
Exposure - When a worker takes in a toxic substance by breathing, eating, skin absorption or other means, he or she is exposed to that substance. Exposure is measured over time and in amounts (dose).
Film badge - a pack of photographic film and filters used to determine radiation exposure
Flammable gas - a gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a flammable mixture with air at a concentration of 13 percent by volume or less; or a gas that, at ambient temperature and pressure, forms a range of flammable m ixtures with air wider than 12 percent by volume, regardless of the lower limit
Flammable liquid - as defined by OSHA, any liquid with a flash point below 1000F, except
any mixture having components with flashpoints of 1000F or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture
Flammable solid - any solid material, other than one classed as an explosive, that under normal conditions is liable to cause fire through friction or retained heat from manufacturing or processing; or can be ignited readily, and wh en ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create serious storage hazards; defined by DOT in Title 49 CFR 173.150; flammable solids ignite easily and burn with explosive violence
Flanunable Range - the range of a gas or vapor concentration (percent by volume) that will burn or explode if an ignition source is present; the range of concentrations between the lower flammable (explosive) limit (LFL/LEL) and the upper flammable (explosive) limit (UFL/UEL)
Flash point - the minimum temperature at which a liquid will give off enough vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air
Friable - capable of being crushed by hand as relates to asbestos; friable asbestos becomes easily airborne
Fully encapsulating suits (YES) - full chemical protective suits offering full body protection from chemicals having both toxic inhalation and dermal effects; includes self-contained breathing apparatus and/or airline respiratory pr otection
- small hot particles that become airborne and condense when a solid
material is heated or burned. Example: Welding with lead solder creates
Gamma radiation - high energy electromagnetic radiation
Gas - A chemical that is normally airborne at room temperature, rather than solid or liquid. Examples: Carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide.
General Ventilation - Lessens airborne contamination by diluting workplace air by ceiling or window fans
Generic Name - The correct name for a whole group or class of substances which have similar characteristics
Hazard Abatement - The process of controlling and eliminating hazards.
Hazard class - a category of hazard associated with hazardous materials or hazardous waste that may be an unreasonable risk to health, safety and property when transported; the DOT hazard classes are: Explosive (Class A, B and C), F lammable Liquid, Flammable Solid, Corrosive Material, Oxidizer, Poison A, Poison B. Radioactive Material, Nonflammable Gas, ORM-A, ORM-B, ORM-C, ORM- D, ORM-E, Etiologic Agent, Irritating Material, Organic Peroxide, Combustible Liquid, Flammable Gas, and Blasting Agent
Health Hazard - Any type of job-related noise, dusts, gases, toxic chemicals, substances, or dangerous working conditions which could cause an accident, injury, disease or death to workers
Hazardous chemical - a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in expos ed employees; includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic systems, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes
Hazardous material - any substance or mixture of substances that poses an unreasonable risk to health, safety or property
Hazardous Waste - any material as defined by RCRA (Title 40 CFR 261, Subpart C and listed in Subpart D) that is corrosive, ignitable, reactive or toxic
Hazardous Waste Manifest - the shipping document, originated and signed by the hazardous waste generator containing the information specified in Title 40 CFR 262, Subpart B
Hepatitis - inflammation of the liver
Herbicide - any poison that kills plant life or vegetation
HMTA - Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (1975)
Hypothermia - condition of reduced body temperature
Ignition temperature - minimum temperature of a substance at which combustion is initiated or self-sustained independent of the heating or heated element
Incompatible - materials which could cause dangerous reactions from direct contact with one another; example: sodium cyanide and hydrochloric acid react to form the highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas
IDLH- Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health; represents the maximum concentration of a substance in air from which, in the event of respirator failure, one could escape within 30 minutes without experiencing any escape-impairing or irr eversible health effects
Ignitable - defined by EPA as having a Cashpoint less than 140 F.; a solid or liquid waste exhibiting a "characteristic of ignitability" as defined by RCRA may be regulated by EPA as a hazardous waste
Industrial Hygiene - The technical specialty concerned with the recognition, evaluation, and elimination of workplace hazards. Industrial hygienists study ventilation techniques and other engineering controls, as well as methods for determining the identity and concentration of chemical, physical, and radiation hazards
Infectious waste - waste that contains pathogens or consists of tissues, organs, body parts, blood and body fluids that are removed during surgery or other procedures; Title 42 CFR Part 72
Inflammable - Means the same thing as flammable: a material that can burn easily
Inflammation - A condition of the body or portion of the body characterized by swelling, redness, pain and heat
Inhalation - The process of breathing something into the lungs
Ingestion - The process of taking a substance through the mouth
Inorganic compounds - compounds that do not contain the element carbon; example: water, sodium chloride
Insecticide - a chemical product used to kill and control nuisance insect species
Irritant - any substance producing inflammation at the site of contact; example: solvents, soap, detergents, acids, alkalies
ISO- International Organization for Standardization
kg- kilogram, a metric unit of weight, about 2.2 US pounds
Lethal- capable of causing death
LC/50- Lethal Concentration/50; the concentration of a material which on the basis of laboratory tests is expected to kill 50 percent of a test population of animals when administered as a single exposure
LC/low- Lethal concentration low; the lowest concentration of a substance in air, other than LC/50, which has been reported to have caused death in humans or animals
LD/50- Lethal dose/50; a single dose of a material which on the basis of laboratory tests has been shown to kill 50 percent of a test population of animals; usually expressed as milligrmas or grams of material per kilogram of animal body weight
LD/low- Lethal dose low; the lowest dose of a substance introduced by any route except inhalation, reported to have caused death in humans or animals
Label (DOI) - diamond-shaped, square-shaped, or rectangular-shaped attachment to a package that identifies the hazardous nature of the material (Title 49 CFR Part 172, Subpart E)
Laboratory - a generic term denoting a building, space, equipment to operations wherein testing, research or experimental work is conducted and shall include laboratories used for instructional purposes; a facility where relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a nonproductive basis
Laboratory building - a structure consisting wholly or principally of one or more laboratory units
Laboratory scale - work with substances in which the containers used for reactions, transfers, adn other handling of substances are designed to be easily and safely manipulated by one person
Laboratory unit - an enclosed, fire-rated space used for testing, research, experimental or educational purposes; laboratory units may or may not include offices, lavatories, and other contiguous rooms maintained for or used by, lab oratory personnel, and corridors within the units and may contain one or more separate laboratory work areas
Laboratory work area - a room or place within a laboratory unit for testing, analysis, research, instruction or similar activities which involve the use of chemicals or gases and may or may not be enclosed
Latent period - the time which elapses between exposure and the first sign or manifestation of damage
LEL or LFL - Lower Explosive Limit or Lower Flammable Limit; the minimum concentration of a gas or vapor in air that will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source is present; at concentrations below the LEL, the mixture is too lean to burn
Local Effect - Means that the action of the chemical takes place at the point of contact, such as dermatitis caused by skin contact with solvents. (Compare with systemic effect)
Marking - applying the required descriptive name, instructions, cautions, weight, or specifications or combination thereof on containers of hazardous materials or hazardous waste (Title 49 CFR 171.8)
Melting point - the temperature at which a solid substance changes to a liquid state; for mixtures, the melting range may be given
Mg/M3- Milligrams per cubic meter of air. A unit for measuring the amount of a chemical or substance in the air. 1000mg equals one gram
Microorganism - a living organism not discretely visible to the unaided eye; example: bacteria, fungi
Mitigate - to lessen or reduce the adverse effects of a hazardous materials incident
Mist- Airborne liquid droplets that are created by a gas going into the liquid state or by a liquid being splashed, foaming or atomized. Examples: oil mist from cutting, grinding, or from pressure; paint mists from spraying
ml - milliliter, a metric unit of capacity, equal in volume to one cubic centimeter or about 1/16 of a cubic inch
mm- millimeter, a metric unit of length, equal to 1/1000 of a meter or about 1/25 of an inch
SDS - Material Safety Data Sheet; a chemical fact sheet required by OSHA to be generated by the manufacturer and shipped downstream to all employer/users of hazardous products; contains information on the specific identity of hazardous in gredients, health effects, first aid, chemical and physical properties, spill response, personal protective equipment, etc.
Mucous Membrane - The moist, soft covering of the nose, mouth, and lining of eyes
Mutagen - substance capable of causing genetic damage
Mutation - A change (usually harmful) in the genetic material of a cell. When it occurs in the sperm or egg, the mutation can be passed on to future generations
NA number - North American identification number; NA preceding a four-digit number indicates that this identification number is used in the United States and Canada to identify a hazardous material in transportation
Narcosis - destruction of body tissue
Neutralization - the process by which acid or alkaline properties of a solutions are altered by the addition of certain reagents to bring the pH to 7, the value of pure water; sodium bicarbonate is commonly used to neutralize acid s pills
Neutralize - to make harmless anything contaminated with a chemical agent
NFPA- National Fire Protection Association, an international voluntary membership organization to promote and improve fire protection and prevention and establish safeguards against the loss of life and property by fire; best known for th e National Fire Codes (16 volumes)
NFPA Hazard Classification - the numerical designations of relative accident potential at fixed sites based on probable outcomes should an accident occur
NIOSH- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS); federal agency which conducts occupational health and safety research, tests and certifies respiratory equipment and ai r sampling detector tubes, recommends occupational exposure limits and assists OSHA and MSHA in safety and health investigations
Nitrates - compounds conteuning oxygen and nitrogen, many of which are potent oxidizers; react with paper and wood products to form combustible compounds; example: nitric acid reacts with wood to form nitrocellulose
Nonflammable gas - any material or mixture in a cylinder or tank having an absolute pressure
exceeding 40 psi at 700F, or exceeding 104 psi at 1300F (Title 49 CFR and CGA); nonflammable gases will not form a flammable mixture in air but may support combustion
NPIN- National Pesticides Telecommunications Network; a national pesticide poison control center restricted to use by health professionals; assists in diagnosing and managing pesticide poisoning 24 hours a day
Nuisance dust - generally non-toxic dust but may be irritating at high concentrations
Olfactory - relating to the sense of smell
Organic peroxide - very reactive and unstable organic compounds containing the -O-O (oxygen) structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivation of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms has been r eplaced by an organic radical; organic peroxides heated above their transportation temperatures are likely to explode
ORM(A-E) - Other Regulated Materials as defined by DOT
OSHA- Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the US Department of Labor; federal agency which regulates and enforces safety and health for most US industries and businesses and public employers in those states with state-approve d OSHA plans
Overpack - an enclosure used to provide protection or convenience in handling a package or to consolidate two or more packages
Oxidizer - a chemical other than a blasting agent or explosive that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials, causing fire of itself or through the release of oxygen or other gases
Oxidizing agent - a chemical which brings about an oxidation reaction; the agent may provide the oxygen to the substance being oxidized or it may receive electrons being transferred from the substance undergoing oxidation; example: chlorine contains no oxygen but is a very good oxidizing agent for electron-transfers
Pathogen - any microorganism capable of causing disease
PCB - Polychlorinated biphenyl
PCOcontaminated electrical equipment - any electrical equipment, including transformers, that contains at least 50 PPM but less than 500 PPM PCB (Title 40 CFR 761.3)
PCB item - any item containing PCBs at a concentration of 50 PPM or more (Title 40 CFR 761.3)
PCB transformer - any transformer that contains PCBs at a concentration of 500 PPM or more (Title 40 CFR 761.3)
PCDF - Polychlorinated dibenzofurans; a class of very toxic chemical compounds occurring as a result of thermal degradations of PCBs
Pesticide - a poison that kills small pests, especially rodents and insects
PF - protection factor referring to the level of protection offered by respiratory equipment; the higher the PF, the more protective the respirator
pH - the symbol of hydrogen ion concentration; ph of?. is neutral while higher values (greater than 7.0) indicate alkalies and lower values (less than 7.0) indicate acidity
PEL - Permissible exposure level; the numerical level of a chemical or substance above which a worker cannot legally be exposed. Example: the PEL for lead exposure is 50 ug/m3 for a forty-hour week.
Penetration - refers to the bulk movement of a liquid through personal protective equipment openings such as zippers, seams, pinholes, etc.
Permeation - the movement of a substance on the molecular level; the process by which a chemical dissolves into the CPC material and evaporates on the other side; permeation data reveals how safe chemical protective clothing is to w ear while degradation data reveals how long the clothing will hold up
Pig - a lead container used to ship radioactive materials
Peroxides - highly reactive and unstable compounds; powerful oxidizing agents
Physical hazard - a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reacti ve
Placard - a DOT-regulated sign that identifies hazardous materials on large containers such as tanker trucks and railroad tank cars
PPE/Personal Protective Equipment - Devices worn by workers to protect them against work-related hazards such as air contaminants, falling materials, and noise. While it is important to wear such equipment when required, it should b e remembered that these devices usually only provide minimal protection to workers and should only have to be worn when all other efforts have been initiated to correct an unsafe working environment. Examples of personal protective equipment include hard hats, ear plugs, respirators and steel-toe work shoes
Pneumoconiosis - pulmonary disease caused by the inhalation of toxic dusts
Pneumonitis - inflammation of the lungs characterized by an outpouring of fluid in the lungs; pneumonia is the same condition but involves greater quantities of fluid
PPM - Abbreviation for parts per million; the ratio of the amount of a substance to the amount of air. one part benzene vapor per million parts of air is 1 ppm
Poison Class A - poisonous gases or liquids of such a nature that a very small amount mixed with air is dangerous to life (Title 49 CFR 173.326) Examples: phosgene, nitrogen peroxide; shipping containers for poisons do not have pressure re lief devices and may BLEVE under fire conditions
Poison Class B - a DOT term for substances (other than Class A poisons) which are so toxic as to present a health hazard during transportation (Title 49 CFR 173.343)
Poison Control Centers - nationwide network of poison control centers set up by the Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services; usually established in local hospitals
Polymerization - a chemical reaction in which one or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules; hazardous polymerizations are ones which take place at such a rate that large amounts of energy are released
psi- pounds per square inch; a unit measuring the pressure a material exerts on the walls of a confining vessel or enclosure
Pyrophoric - a chemical that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130 F. or less
rad- a unit for the measurement of radioactivity; one rad is the amount of radiation that results in the absorption of 100 ergs of energy by 1 gram of material
Radioactive - any type of substance that liberates radioactive particles or energy due to unstable atoms that have disintegrating nuclei
RAM- radioactive material; may be subject to the licensing requirements of Title 10 CFR
RCRA- Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a federal law administered by the EPA regulating disposal of all wastes; manages hazardous wastes through a "cradle to grave" tracing system by controlling their generation, treating , storage, transportation and disposal
Reaction- a chemical transformation or change; the interaction of two or more substances to form new substances
Reactivity - tendency of a substance to undergo a chemical reaction with the release of energy; also a RCRA classification for hazardous waste triggering regulation
Recovery drum - drum used to overpack damaged or leaking hazardous materials
Reducing agent - the substance that combines with oxygen or loses electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction
rem- a measure of radiation dose meaning roentgen equivalent man; calculated by multiplying the dose in rads by the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation considered
Reportable quantity - substances in quanitities listed by DOT or EPA that must be reported; specified by DOT in Title 49 CFR 172.101 or by EPA in Title 40 CFR 173
Residue - defined by DOT as the hazardous material remaining in a packaging after its contents have been emptied and before the packaging is refilled, or cleaned and purged of vapor to remove any potential hazard (Title 49 CFR 171.8 ); empty poison containers are very dangerous due to remaining residue
Risk - the probability that damage to life, property and/or the environment will occur if a hazard manifests itself
Roentgen- measure of the charge produced as rays pass through the air
Salvage drum - drum with a removable metal head used to transport damaged or leaking hazardous materials for repackaging or disposal
SARA- Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986
SCBA- self-contained breathing apparatus
Select carcinogen - any substance which meets one of the following criteria: 1) it is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen; or 2) it is listed under the category "Known to be carcinogens" in the Annual Report on Carcinogens p ublished by the National Toxicology Program (NTP); or 3) it is listed under GROUP l ("Carcinogenic to humans") by the International Agency for Research (IARC) Cancer Monographs; or 4) it is listed in either GROUP 2A OR 2B by IARC or under the ca tegory "Reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens" by NTP, and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals in accordance with any of the following criteria: a) after inhalation exposure of 6-7 hours per day, 5 days pe r week, for a
significant portion of a lifetime to dosages of less than 10 mg/M3; b) after repeated skin application of less than 300 mg/kg of body weight per week; or c) after oral dosages of less than 50 mg/kg of body weight per day
Sensitizer- A substance that causes an individual to react when subsequently exposed to the same or other irritant, as in a skin reaction or allergy.
Short-Term Exposure Limit (STEL) - A standard for the permissible occupational exposure limit for a brief (not over 15 minutes) period. Usually only four short exposures a day are permitted, each at least 60 minutes apart.
"SKIN" - a notation sometimes used with the PEL or TLV to indicate a substance readily absorbed through the skin; this additional exposure must be considerd part of the total exposure to avoid exceeding the PEL or TLV
Smoke- an air suspension (aerosol) of particulates, often originating from combustion or sublimation
SOP- Standard Operating procedures
Solubility in water - term expressing the percentage of a material by weight that will dissolve in water at ambient temperature
Solution- mixture of one or more substances in another substance, usually a liquid in which all the ingredients are dissolved
Spontaneously combustible - solids or liquids capable of spontaneously heating or igniting
Solvent- A substance (usually a liquid) capable of dissolving another.
Stability - ability of a material to remain unchanged; a material is stable if it remains in the same form under expected and reasonable conditions of storage and use
Storage room - a room where chemicals or gases regulated by the New York City Fire Department 1-66 Laboratory regulation are stored and not otherwise used or reacted
Storage cabinet - a cabinet for the storage of not more than 60 gallons of flammable liquid which is designed and constructed in accordance with the OSHA General Industry Standards
Superfund - the trust fund set up under CERCLA to provide money for hazardous waste cleanups
Synergistic- Two or more agents that act together to produce a total effect greater than the sum of the separate effects.
Systemic Effect - A chemical's effect on the body that takes place somewhere other than point of contact. For example, some pesticides are absorbed through the skin (point of contact), but affect the nervous system (site of action).
Teratogen- Substances or agents that cause birth defects or other abnormalities in offspring, when exposure occurs during pregnancy.
Threshold- the level where the first health effects occur; also the point at which a person just begins to hear that a sound becoming audible
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) -The recommended limit (by ACGIH) allowed for worker exposure to toxic chemicals, substances, and airborne contaminants. It is believed that a worker can be repeatedly exposed to the TLV without adverse e ffects.
Time Weighted Average (TWA) An OSHA standard based on exposure over eight hours, using time-integrated sampling.
Toxic- Poisonous; capable of causing any sort of injury to the body. This includes noise, radiation, heat, cold, along with chemical and mineral substances.
Trade Name - Any arbitrary name a company chooses to use for a chemical or product for advertising reasons or in order to keep secret the ingredients. wFormacil" or WMethotrexate" are trade names. See generic names and che mical names.
TSCA- Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)
TSDF- Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility
Title m - the federal Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act; mandates emergency response planning at the State and Local levels through State Emergency Planning Commissions (SERCs) and L ocal Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs); mandates automatic reporting of extremely hazardous substances at fixed facilities as well as reporting of toxic releases; provides for citizen access to all the above information
UEL or UFL - upper explosive or flammable limit; the maximum concentration of a vapor or gas in air that sustain a flame when an ignition source is present; mixtures above the UEL/UFL are too rich to burn
UL - Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
Ug/M3- Micrograms per cubic meter of air, l000 micrograms equal one milligram.
Vapor- the gaseous form of a substance that normally is a liquid or solid; examples: water vapor, vapors of organic solvents such as toluene vapors; please note it is incorrect to say "paint fumes" as the correct term is paint v apors
Vapor density - the weight of a vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of air; materials with vapor densities less than l.0 are lighter than air and materials with vapor densities greater than l.0 are heavier than ai r
Vapor pressure - the pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above its own liquid in a closed container; the higher the vapor pressure (reported in millimeters of mercury on an SDS), the more readily a substance evaporates; the lower the boiling point of a substance, the higher its vapor pressure
Ventilation - A duct and fan system that takes contaminants (fumes or dust) in the air out of the work area, thereby reducing worker's exposure. The most effective type of ventilation is local exhaust ventilation, placed close to th e source of airborne fumes or dust and drawing it away from the worker
Volatile - Tendency for a liquid to evaporate or vaporize rapidly.
Water-reactive materials - any substance that readily reacts with or decomposes in the presence of water with substantial release of energy; examples: sodium metal, magnesium metal
THE NEED FOR LABORATORY SOPS
laboratory accidents recently occurred on campus within a two week
few more millimeters of penetration would have meant los s of his right
eye. The Norton 180 goggles did not provide adequate protection for
this type of procedure.
This mixture can result in a violent reaction and possible explosion. Glass fragments were spewn throughout the area, one with en ough force to completely cut through a plastic hose attached to a water source.These three accidents all underline the need for written standard operating procedures for each phase of laboratory work.
For example, written SOPs for chemical handling, storage and disposal should have been in effect. Such writt en SOPs should also specify the proper protective equipment to be used. Everyone in the lab should be thoroughly familiar with all of these procedures.
If your laboratory would like assistance in developing standard operating procedures, waste disposal procedures and emergency response actions, please contact the Environmental Health and Safety Office at X-48749. We are here to assist you.
AND SAFETY TRAINING
Overview of Regulations
OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR PARTICULARLY
Particularly hazardous substances include reproductive toxins, allergens, acutely toxic and chronically toxic chemicals.Toxic effects are produced by a chemical if it reaches an appropriate site in the body at a concentration and for a length of time sufficient to produce a toxic response.
The effects of toxic substances may appear immediately or soon after exposure (acute toxicity) or they may take many years to appear (chronic toxicity).ACUTELY TOXIC SUBSTANCES Acute effects are due to a single exposure or a few exposures usually occurring within the same 24-hour period. Acute health effects range from complete recovery, recovery with some damage, or death. Highly acute t oxic chemicals include hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide.CHRONICALLY TOXIC SUBSTANCES Chronic effects are due to repeated exposures to low doses of toxic substances usually over a long period of time.
Chronic illnesses can occur either from a build-up of the chemical in the body or from an accum ulation of the damage. Examples of chronically toxic substances are the heavy metals such as mercury (central nervous system impairment), and organic solvents such as n-hexane (peripheral neuropathy).
Chronically toxic substances also include carcinogens. The University laboratory policy mandates special handling procedures for select carcinogens. A select carcinogen is any substance which meets one of the following cnteria:
1) it is regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen;
ALLERGENS Chemical allergy is an adverse, antibody mediated reaction resulting from a prior sensitization to a chemical. As with environmental allergens such as pollen and animal dander, not everyone's immune system will become sensitized to any particular chemical.
For those that do develop a chemical
allergy, sensitization usually evolves over a 10 - 21 day period,
after which even a low dose exposure to the chemical results in
an allergic reaction.
Although any compound possesses the potential to elicit an allergic response in some subpopulation of workers, there are some chemicals that induce allergy more commonly than others. Some common allergens include toluene diisocyanate, bery llium, methylmethacrylate, formaldehyde, dinitrochlorobenzene, and powdered vinyl and latex gloves.
toxins are any compounds that interfere with the normal male
or female reproductive processes. Reproductive toxins include
mutagens and teratogens.
Other types of reproductive toxins may cause diminished fertility, e mbryolethality (death of a fertilized egg, embryo or fetus), retarded growth and postnatal functional deficits.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR PHYSICAL HAZARDS IN THE LABORATORY: ELECTRICAL HAZARDS, CRYOGENIC HAZARDS AND COLD TRAPS, COMPRESSED GASES AND PRESSURE HAZARDS, AND LASER HAZARDS ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Electrical hazards can result in shock to personnel, ignition of combustible or explosive materials, electrical explosions, and inadvertent activation of equipment.
effects of electrical shock depend on the amount of current (amperage)
pasing through the body, the current path and the frequency and
duration of the flow. Resistance (measured in ohms) determines amperage
so low voltage can be just as dangerous as high voltage. The
resistance of the human body to current flow is contained almost
entirely in the skin, particularly the dead, scaly cells of the outer
. Dry skin
100 ohms The three levels of electrical shock are mild, severe and deadly. Mild shock is caused by brief contact with current less than 5 milliamperes (mA). Severe shock is caused by longer contact with current from 5 to 25 milliamperes (mA).
Deadl y shock occurs when a person is frozen to an electrical contact and receives continuous current greater than 25 milliamperes (mA).
1. Use properly grounded equipment. If an electrical device
is grounded, its cord will have a three-prong plug and require
a three way receptacle to accomodate it. Equipment need not
be grounded if it is double-insulat ed; this is usually indicated
by a label.
CRYOGENIC HAZARDS AND COLD TRAPS
Cryogens are gases that must be cooled to less than -150 F before they can be liquiefied. All cryogens require special handling because they have a very high liquid to vapor expansion, the ability to liquefy other gases and the potential t o damage living tissue. Cryogens and the surfaces they cool can cause severe burns upon skin contact.
COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
Compressed gases present both mechanical and chemical hazards and thus require careful handling procedures.
Compressed gas cylinders shall always be secured in an upright position
with chains, straps or special stands.
A FLAMMABLE GAS sign must be posted at the entrance of the laboratory.
Shield high-pressure operations or operations under vacuum with a blast shield and always wear protective safety goggles. Closed systems in which reactions are carried out or to which heat is applied must be designed and tested to withstand pressure. Pressurized apparatus must have appropriate relief devices. If the reaction cannot be opened directly to the a ir, an inert gas purge and bubbler system should be used to avoid pressure build-up.
LASER HAZARDS 1. Personnel should use light-tight interlocked enclosures to enclose the laser beam.
2. Wear laser safety eyewear whenever working in any laboratory where a laser is in operation.
3. Before turning on any laser close the door to the laboratory and post the following sign on the door. CAUTION: LASER IN OPERATION DO NOT ENTER The letters must be 3 inches in height and in red. 4. On the door of every laboratory occupied by any laser and inside the laboratory the following symbol must be posted. The symbol must be in red and the background must be yellow or white. The letters must be-in black and one inch in heig ht.
5. Never look directly into any laser beam. Lasers are highly intense focused forms of energy and can permanently damage the eye upon impingement.
6.Never expose any part of your body to any laser beam. Besides being potentially hazardous to the eye lasers can also damage the skin severely.
7. Equipment in the laboratory should consist of non-reflecting surfaces. This will prevent exposure to indirect beams.
8. General illumination in laser radiation areas shall be at least 30 lumens per square foot, except where conditions of laser operation require lower ambient illumination.
9. If only part of the laser beam is to be used, terminate the unused portion with a non-reflecting material.
10. Anybody who operates a laser must be aware of the potential hazards of laser . beams. Therefore all expected users must undergo training.
11. For appropriate signs, eyewear, enclosures and training contact the Environmental Health and Safety Office at x) 48749.
12. All electrical equipment and wiring in any laboratory occupied by a laser must be under routine check for hazardous conditions. All electrical equipment must be grounded.
13. Flammable solvents ( those with flash points less than 100F ) must be stored in premises that fully comply with the New York City Fire Department Directive 1-66.
14. Lasers should be placed horizontally at approximately 4 feet above the ground.
15. Lasers should not be moved from one laboratory to another.
16. Only equipment and minimum amounts of material needed for operating the laser should be
present in the laser laboratory