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Respiratory Protection Program
SUMMARY

PURPOSE:
This program establishes acceptable practices for respirator use, delineates responsibilities, and provides guidance on proper selection; individual fit testing, use and care of respirators in accordance with the regulatory requirements.

PROTOCOL:
An individual assigned the task requiring respiratory protection shall use an appropriate NIOSH certified respirators based on the respiratory hazard(s) to which the worker is exposed.

Personnel using a respirator shall be cleared by a licensed healthcare professional to use it.

Supervisors shall ensure that the user select and use a proper respirator and clean, disinfect and properly store it after the use.

Personnel shall not be assigned a task requiring respiratory protection unless they receive medical clearance from a licensed healthcare professional to use a respirator.

Each user shall be properly trained and fit‑tested by EH&S before using a respirator.

DOCUMENTATION:
The department shall assess the need for respiratory protection based on activities involved and associated hazards. EH&S services should be utilized for risk assessment as necessary.

RESPONSIBILITY:
Departmental supervisor shall be responsible to ensure that all employees who need respiratory protection have a proper respirator, use it during the work and are properly trained about its use and care and ensure annual fit testing.

EH&S shall provide training on selection, use and maintenance of respirators and fit test each user.

EH&S shall maintain records of fit-testing.

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PROGRAM

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. PURPOSE
  3. SCOPE
  4. PROTOCOL
    1. Authority
    2. Needs Assessment
    3. Medical Evaluation
    4. Medical Evaluation Procedure
    5. Voluntary Use of Respirators
    6. Respirator Use Under Special Circumstances
  5. PROCEDURES
    1. Administration of The Program
    2. Respirator Selection
    3. Training
      1. Initial
      2. Annual
    4. Fit‑Testing
    5. Maintenance and Storage
      1. Maintenance
      2. Storage
    6. Recordkeeping
    7. Program Evaluation
  6. RESPONSIBILITIES
    1. Environmental Health and Safety Office
    2. Department/Supervisor
    3. Employees Health Services
    4. EHS Occupational Physician Consultant
    5. Employees
  7. REFERENCES
  8. APPENDICES
  9. Glossary of Terms
  10. Types of Respirators: Description and Limit
  11. Protection Factors for Respirators
  12. Training Guidelines for Respiratory Protection
  13. Qualitative Fit‑Testing Protocol
  14. Procedures for Cleaning and Sanitizing Respirator
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I. INTRODUCTION
Potential exposure to respiratory hazards may occur while performing routine tasks and or during specialized work such as in confined spaces. To prevent potential occupational illnesses caused by exposure to airborne contaminants and to maintain compliance with the United States Department of Labor Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard 29 CFR 1910.134, the University Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) has developed a Respiratory Protection Program. However, the respiratory protection shall be used only after all other engineering and/or administrative controls have been exhausted. This guiding principle should be the mindset of supervisors and EH&S staff as they assess the need for respiratory protection.

Respiratory protection is available to personnel subject to exposure to concentrations of dusts, gases, fumes, mists, toxic materials above OSHA established permissible exposure limits (PEL), and/or working in atmospheres deficient in oxygen. If necessary, respiratory protection will be made available to personnel handling laboratory animals or other special tasks.

Avoiding or minimizing exposure to harmful substances can protect the respiratory system; however, in some cases this may not be possible and use of an appropriate respiratory protective device may be required. Use of respirator can reduce exposure to many contaminants present in that environment; therefore, proper selection of a respirator for the condition at hand is necessary.

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 Part 1910 requires that a standard operating procedure be written to govern the selection and use of respirators based on the hazards to which the worker is exposed. The user must be physically able to wear the respirator and properly trained in its selection, use, and maintenance. The respirator should provide adequate protection against the particular hazards for which it is selected. The Columbia University Respiratory Protection Program covers these elements:

  • a written plan explaining how the respiratory protection program will be administered.
  • a complete assessment of potential respiratory hazards that may be encountered in the workplace.
  • procedures and equipment to control respiratory hazards, including the use of engineering controls and work practices designed to limit or reduce employee exposure to such hazards.
  • guidelines for the proper selection of appropriate respiratory protective equipment.
  • Employee training which will include: limitations of air purifying respirators, hazard recognition, dangers associated with respiratory hazards, proper use, care, and storage of respiratory protective equipment.
  • Inspection, cleaning, and repair of respiratory equipment.
  • Evaluation of respirator protection plan.
  • Medical evaluation of employees

II. PURPOSE
To establish acceptable practices for respirator use, delineate responsibilities, provide guidance on proper selection, individual fit testing, use and care of respirators in accordance with OSHA requirements and University policy.

III. SCOPE
This program applies university-wide for all personnel whose job responsibilities require the use of respiratory protection based on their exposure to a hazardous environment.

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IV. PROTOCOL
Authority:
University personnel will use only EHS authorized respiratory protection equipment. Use of any unauthorized equipment will not be allowed.

Needs Assessment
A supervisor or an employee that feels that his/her work environment poses respiratory hazard shall contact EHS for risk assessment to determine the need for respiratory protection. After evaluating the hazards present in the workplace, EHS will determine the need for respiratory protection. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to ensure that employees who work in a hazardous environment wear proper respiratory protection before they are assigned the task.

All personnel required to wear respiratory protection shall be properly trained and fit tested. EHS will provide training and fit testing.

Medical Evaluation
According to OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 any individual assigned to a task that requires the use of respiratory protection should be physically able to wear a respirator. The standard also states that a physician or other licensed healthcare professional will make the determination of an employee’s fitness. This medical evaluation should be conducted prior to any respirator fit testing or usage. Employees refusing to undergo a medical evaluation cannot be fit tested.

Medical Clearance Procedures:
Once it has been determined that an individual needs respiratory protection, medical clearance is required. The purpose of clearance is to insure that the employee has adequate respiratory and cardiovascular fitness prior to wearing a respirator. EHS will provide a medical questionnaire to each employee that requires the use of a respirator. The form must be signed by a licensed healthcare professional and returned to EHS.

Employees working at the Medical Center can get medical clearance at the Occupational Health Services, Harkness Pavilion, first floor. At the Morningside and other campuses the supervisor shall make arrangements for such clearance at no charge to the employee.

Employees who are currently in the respiratory protection program can complete the “Medical Disease Questionnaire” to get clearance from the EHS Physician Consultant. An employee who could not pass this medical review will be referred to OHS or other Physician for further review and clearance. The examining physician upon the completion of the review will complete the “Medical Clearance Form”. Copies of these forms will be on file at the Columbia University EHS offices. Employees will not be responsible for any fees and charges associated with this medical exam.

Voluntary Use of Respirator:
Under certain circumstances OSHA allows voluntary use of filtering facepiece respirators, commonly referred to as a dust mask. Only NIOSH approved filtering facepieces should be used. Voluntary users of filtering facepieces are not required to undergo fit testing. It will be the employee’s supervisor’s responsibility to inform the EHS of any voluntary respirator usage prior to use. All other voluntary respiratory usage not condoned or approved by the EHS office is prohibited.

Voluntarily users must insure that they are not jeopardizing their health by wearing the respirator, it is clean and it is not shared. Consultation with EHS is recommended.

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Respirator Use Under Special Conditions:
The following are special situations, which may be encountered while wearing respiratory protective equipment:

Facial Hair: Facial hair that lies along the sealing area of the respirator, such as beards, sideburns, mustaches, or even a few days growth of stubble, will not be permitted on employees who are required to wear respirators. Facial hair between the wearer’s skin and the sealing surfaces of the respirator will prevent a good seal. A worker should not enter an area, in which it has been determined that respiratory protection is necessary, when conditions prevent a good seal of the respirator facepiece to the face.

Eye Glasses: Ordinary eyeglasses should not be used with full-facepiece respirators. Eye glasses with temple bars or straps that pass between the sealing surface of a full - facepiece and the worker’s face will prevent a good seal. Special spectacle kits can be ordered and mounted inside a full - facepiece respirator through the employee’s supervisor.

Eyeglasses or goggles may interfere with the half facepieces. When interferences occur, a full-facepiece with special corrective lenses may be necessary.

Contact Lenses: Several factors may restrict or even prohibit the use of contact lenses while wearing any type of respiratory device. This is especially true of atmosphere-supplying respirators. With full-facepieces, incoming air directed toward the eye can cause discomfort from dirt, lint, or other debris lodging between the contact lens and the pupil.

Contact lenses should not be worn in hazardous environments without consultation with EHS. Instead the appropriate form of eye protection should be donned. This may come in the form of goggles or safety glasses.

Communication: Verbal communication while wearing respiratory protection can be very difficult and may also contribute to a poor respirator seal. Therefore, hand signals may be an easier alternative. The hand signals should be worked out with the person you are working with prior to entry into a hazardous environment.

Temperature Extremes: Low temperatures may cause respirator lenses to become fogged. Coating the inner surface of the lens with the anti-fogging compound should prevent this problem. Full-facepieces with nose cups that direct warm, exhaled air through the exhalation valve without it’s touching the lens are available. At very low temperatures, exhalation valves may freeze due to moisture.
Physiological Response to Respirator Use: Wearing any respirator, alone or in conjunction with other types of protective equipment, will impose some physiological stress on the wearer. Weight of the equipment, for example, increases the energy requirement for a given task. Selection of respiratory protective devices should be based on the breathing resistance, weight of the respirator, the type and amount of protection needed as well as the individual’s tolerance of the given device.

Use of respirators in conjunction with personal protective equipment (PPE) can greatly affect the human response and endurance, especially in hot environments. Normally, in hot environments or during heavy work, the body relies a great deal on heat loss through the evaporation of sweat. With impermeable clothing, the heat loss due to water evaporation is not possible. Additionally, the weight of the respirator adds to the metabolic rate of workers, increasing the amount of heat the body produces. The net effect is one of heat stress.

When employees are wearing PPE the implementation of a work rest regimen should be implemented. This time spent working as opposed the time spent resting will be contingent upon the PPE being worn, temperature conditions, and physical demand of the work.

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V. PROCEDURES

Administration of the Program

  1. Respirators and accessories shall be available to all employees who require them for their assigned work exposed to a known contaminant above the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL).
  2. Respirators will be selected on the basis of hazards to which the person is exposed with consideration given to both safety and health factors, as well as to probable risk. Only NIOSH approved respirators shall be selected. Complete instruction on the use of respirators shall be given to those who use them. It is preferable that respirators are assigned to workers for their exclusive use.
  3. Before initial use, each respirator must be properly fitted, leakage tests performed, and the facepiece‑to‑face seal tested in a realistic test situation. Before each use, both positive and negative pressure tests shall also be conducted.
  4. Respirators must be regularly cleaned and disinfected. Respirators should be stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitary location free of contaminants.
  5. Respirators should be inspected during cleaning. Only trained personnel may replace worn or deteriorated parts with new parts. No attempt should be made to replace components or to make adjustments or repairs beyond the manufacturer's recommendations.
  6. Workers shall be instructed and trained in the selection, use, care, and maintenance of respiratory protective devices. Training shall provide each user an opportunity to handle the respirator, to have it fitted properly, to test its facepiece‑to‑face seal, to wear it in normal air for a familiarization period, and to wear it in a realistic test atmosphere. Retraining shall be done as needed to maintain an effective program.
  7. Supervisor should conduct regular inspections to determine the continued effectiveness of the program. Similarly, EH&S will periodically evaluate the effectiveness of the program.
  8. Only clean‑shaven skin may be in contact with any respirator sealing sources. Even a mild growth of whiskers will interfere with this seal. Small beards and moustaches that fit entirely within the respirator facepiece may cause an exhalation valve to fail if a hair becomes lodged in it. Thick hair styles may also create problems in maintaining proper tension of respirator head straps. In addition, respirators should not be worn when conditions such as sideburns, a skull cap that projects under the facepiece, temple pieces on corrective spectacles or goggles, or the absence of one or both dentures prevent a good facepiece to face seal. Therefore, while on duty, all employees within the scope of this policy must be clean shaven in the areas of the respirator facepiece to face seal. If hair growth, other than in the clean shaven area of facepiece to face seal, interferes with a satisfactory fit, then it must be altered or removed to eliminate interference with the fit.
  9. Contact lenses shall not be worn when half mask respirators are used without the approval of EHS. Corrective lenses, which interfere with the facepiece to face sealing area, must not be used unless fitted with a bar.
  10. Users shall be medically cleared by a licensed healthcare professional before using a respirator. The examining physician will be given information about the equipment to be used.
  11. Employees must not be assigned tasks requiring the use of a respirator unless it has been determined by a licensed healthcare professional that they are physically and physiologically able to perform their work while wearing the prescribed respiratory protection at no cost to employee. The examining physician will provide written opinion indicating the ability of the employee to wear the prescribed respirator and recommendations on limited respirator use, if any.

Respirator Selection

  1. The guidelines outlined in this section provide assistance in the selection of appropriate respiratory protection. It is important that the supervisor assess the potential hazards and degree of control which can be exercised over each situation, and require employees to use respiratory protective devices to protect their health.
  2. The degree of respiratory hazard, as it refers to the selection and classification of respirators, depends upon several things, such as the atmospheric oxygen concentration; a contaminant's physical state, toxicity, and concentration; the presence of other contaminants or stress factors in the working environment; and worker exposure time and susceptibility. Respiratory hazards may be classified as gas and vapor contaminants (immediately or not immediately dangerous to life or health), and oxygen deficiencies. Each classification requires a different type of respiratory protection.
  3. In the selection and use of respiratory protective devices, various health and safety factors must be considered. For example, the characteristics of hazardous operation or process, the intended use and limitations of respiratory protective devices, the activity of workers in the hazardous area, the movement and work rate limitations, the lower flammability limits, protection factor, etc., must be taken into consideration while selecting respirators.
  4. Factors used to select the appropriate respirators cartridges are sorbet efficiencies, poor warning properties, skin absorption, eye irritation, and conditions immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH). Reference materials are available to assist in determining the general conditions or situations indicating the most appropriate use of respiratory protective devices, e.g. NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic

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Training

A. Initial Training
Selecting the appropriate respirator for a given hazard is very important, but equally important is using the selected device properly. Proper use can be ensured by carefully training users in selection, use, fitting, and maintenance of respirators. Unless the reasons for the use of respirators and the instructions on proper use and maintenance are thoroughly understood and an ongoing training provided, the devices might not be used because it may not work properly. Therefore, a well-established training program is an essential component of a respiratory protection program and all employees whose work requires the use of respirators must attend it. A detailed training outline is given in Appendix D. It includes:

  1. Instructions in the nature of the hazard and what the results could be if the respirator is not used.
  2. Discussion on engineering and administrative controls.
  3. Recognition of emergency situations and methods of dealing with them.
  4. Discussion of why a certain type of respirator is used in a particular environment; also, description of types of respirators, their capabilities, and limitations.
  5. Proper selection, use, cleaning, and maintenance of respirators.

B. Annual Training
All employees using respirators will be retrained and fit tested annually.

Fit‑Testing

  1. All fit‑testing will be conducted by a qualified EH&S staff member.
  2. Each user must be fit‑tested before initial use and at least annually thereafter.
  3. The test will be performed using the respirator determined to be the most effective during fit‑test for a particular individual.
  4. Prior to the selection process, the test subject will be shown how to put on a respirator, how to adjust strap tension, and how to assess a "comfortable" respirator
  5. Assessment of comfort includes reviewing the following points with the test subject:
    1. proper placement of chin
    2. position of mask on nose
    3. strap tension
    4. fit across nose bridge
    5. distance from nose to chin
    6. room to talk
    7. tendency to slip
    8. self‑observation in mirror
    9. adequate time for assessment
  6. EH&S will use a qualitative fit‑testing procedure to determine satisfactory facial seal with negative pressure respirators, as described in Appendix E.
  7. After passing the fit‑test, the test subject will again be questioned about the comfort of the respirator. If it is uncomfortable, another model will be tried.
  8. A person may use only that make and model respirator for which a satisfactory fit was completed. Under no circumstances an employee shall use a respirator if the qualitative fit‑testing indicates an unsatisfactory fit.
  9. Facial hair, scars, hollow temples, protruding cheek bones, absence of teeth or dentures, etc. may result in unsatisfactory fit. Employee must inform their supervisor of any such change.

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Maintenance and Storage

A. Maintenance

  1. The supervisor shall ensure that all respirators are maintained at their original effectiveness. If they are modified in any way, their protection factors may be reduced. The plan should include inspection, cleaning and sanitizing, repair and storage.
  2. Each respirator must be cleaned and sanitized after each use. After cleaning, the respirator shall be inspected to determine any defects or if it needs any replacement of parts or repair (Appendix F).
  3. Only a qualified person with proper tools and replacement parts should repair respirators. No one should ever attempt to replace components or to make adjustments or repairs beyond the manufacturer's recommendations.
  4. A record of inspection dates, findings, and repairs should be maintained.

B. Storage

  1. Manufacturer's storage instructions are usually furnished with new respirators, and they should be followed.
  2. After a respirator have been inspected and cleaned, it should be stored so as to protect against dust, light, damaging chemicals, and temperature extremes.
  3. Each unit shall be sealed in a plastic bag and placed in a separate box. It should not be hung or pressed against walls.
  4. Cartridges must be stored, with their original seals intact, in their sealed plastic bag until ready for use.

Record Keeping

  1. EH&S shall maintain all necessary training and fit testing records as required by the applicable regulations. These records should include:
      1. Name of test subject
      2. Date of fit test
      3. Name and type of face piece satisfactory to test subject
      4. Challenge agent used
      5. Certificate from the licensed health care professional stating that the subject is physically able to use respirator
  2. Supervisor shall maintain the records of inspection and maintenance of respirator.
  3. University Occupational Health Service shall maintain all medical records as required by the law
  4. Records shall be made available to the employees upon a written request

Program Evaluation

Wearing PPE of any type can cause undue stress on the individual wearing it. Therefore, engineering controls must be explored along with any other means to reduce employee exposure before utilizing PPE. If respirators must be used, supervisors through regular inspections and evaluations should determine the effectiveness of the respiratory protection program. EHS will assess the need for respiratory protection along with any changes (upgrade or downgrade) in the program.

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VI. RESPONSIBILITIES

A. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

  1. Establish a university‑wide written respiratory protection program
  2. Recommend appropriate respiratory protective equipment
  3. Provide training on the proper use and care of respirators
  4. Fit‑test all potential users
  5. Conduct periodic exposure surveillance of workplace hazards
  6. Maintain training and fit‑test records.
  7. Issue guidelines for and updates to the program when necessary

B. DEPARTMENT/SUPERVISOR

  1. Coordinate risk assessment of work site and need determination for respiratory protection.
  2. Arrange for the medical evaluation of potential respirator users.
  3. Purchase only NIOSH approved respirators.
  4. Coordinate training and fit testing with EHS
  5. Assume responsibility and/or appoint a respirator use coordinator within the dept.
  6. Ensure the availability of sufficient quantities of filters/chemical cartridges for specific contaminants and work activities and cleaning agents.
  7. Periodically evaluate the effectiveness of the program to ensure that personnel are fit tested, using proper respirators for the task and they clean and maintain them.
  8. Notify EH&S if problems or deficiencies are observe

C. CPMC OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES at CUMC

  1. Provide medical evaluation, in accordance with the applicable regulations.
  2. Determine if each individual user is capable of wearing respiratory protection equipment
  3. Determine the frequency of follow-up medical evaluation.
  4. Maintain records of medical evaluations as required by the law

D. EH&S OCCUPATIONAL PHYSICIAN CONSULTANT

  1. Review medical questionnaires completed by respirator users and provide medical clearance.
  2. Approve employees for respirator use and specify any limitations.
  3. Refer employees to a medical facility that needs further medical evaluation.
  4. Answer employee questions regarding any health effects of respirator use

E. EMPLOYEES

  1. shall follow guidelines of this respiratory protection program.
  2. shall clean, disinfect, and properly store the respirator.
  3. will guard against damage to respirators during use, cleaning or storage.
  4. shall inspect the respirator for defects, missing parts, etc., and if found defective, return it to the supervisor.
  5. shall comply with fit test requirements.
  6. notify EH&S and health provide of any change in his/her physical condition

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VII. REFERENCES:

  1. 29 CFR 1910.134 and 1926 Respiratory Protection Standard.
  2. NIOSH Guide to the Selection and Use of Particulate Respirators (Certified under 42 CFR 84)
  3. NIOSH Guide to Industrial Respiratory Protection

VIII. APPENDICES

    • Glossary of Terms
    • Types of Respirators
    • Protection Factors for Respirators
    • Training Guidelines for Respiratory Protection
    • Qualitative Fit Testing
    • Procedures for Cleaning and Sanitizing Respirators

    APPENDIX A

    GLOSSARY OF TERMS

    Aerosol Particles, solid or liquid, suspended in air.

    Airline respirator An atmosphere supplying respirator in which the respirable gas is not designed to be carried by the wearer (also called supplied air respirators).

    Air-purifying respirator A respirator in which ambient air is passed through an air purifying element, which removes the contaminant(s). Air is passed through the air purifying element by means of the breathing action or by a blower.

    ANSIAmerican National Standard Institute.

    Assigned protection factor The minimum expected workplace level of respiratory protection that would be provided by a properly functioning respirator or a class of respirators to properly fitted and trained users.

    Atmosphere supplying respirator& A class of respirators that supply a respirable atmosphere independent of the workplace atmosphere.

    Canister/cartridge A container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination, which removes specific contaminants from the air, passed through it.

    Ceiling concentration The concentration of an airborne substance that shall not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure.

    Certified Evaluated and listed as permissible by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA).

    CFR Code of Federal Regulations.

    Confined space An enclosed space, which has limited openings for entry and exit, unfavorable natural ventilation that could contain or produce dangerous air contaminants, could contain a hazardous atmosphere and which is not intended for continuous employee occupancy.

    Contaminant A harmful, irritating, or nuisance airborne material

    Continuous flow respirator An atmosphere supplying respirator, which provide a continuous flow of respirable gas to the respiratory inlet covering.

    Demand respirator An atmosphere supplying respirator, which admits respirable gas to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created by inhalation.

    Dust An aerosol consisting of mechanically produced solid particles derived from the breaking up of larger particles.

    Escape only respirator A respirator intended only for use during emergency egress from a hazardous atmosphere.

    Exposure Limit The maximum allowable concentration of a contaminant in the air to which an individual may be exposed. The may be time weighted average, short term limits or ceiling limits.

    Filter A component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from the inspired air.

    Fit check A test conducted by the wearer to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face.

    Fit test The use of a challenge agent to evaluate the fit of a respirator to a particular individual.

    Fume Solid aerosols formed by condensation of a gas or a vapor. Fumes generally have a smaller particle size when compared to dusts.

    Gas A fluid that has neither independent shape nor volume and tends to expand infinitely.

    Hazardous atmosphere An atmosphere that contains a contaminant(s) in excess of the exposure limits or is oxygen deficient.

    Helmet A hood that offers head protection against impact and penetration.

    High efficiency particulate airs (HEPA) filter A filter, which removes from air 99.97% or more of aerosols having a diameter of 0.3 micrometer.

    Hood A respiratory inlet covering which completely covers the head, neck, and may cover portions of the shoulder.

    Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) Any atmosphere that poses an immediate hazard to life or poses immediate irreversible debilitating effects on health.

    Loose fitting facepiece A respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face, does not cover the neck and shoulders and may or may not head protection against impact or penetration.

    Mist An aerosol composed of liquid particles

    Negative pressure respirator A respirator in which the air pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure.
    OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. Department of Labor)

    Poor warning properties A substance is said to have poor warning properties when its odor, taste or irritation effects are not detectable and not persistent at concentrations at or below the exposure limit.
    Positive pressure respirator A respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering is normally positive with respect to ambient air pressure.

    Powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) An air purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient atmosphere through air purifying elements to the inlet covering.

    Pressure demand respirator A positive pressure atmosphere supplying respirator, which admits respirable, gas when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.

    Qualitative fit test A pass/fail fit test that relies on the subject’s sensory response to detect the challenge agent.

    Quantitative fit test A fit test that uses an instrument to measure the challenge agent inside and outside the respirator.

    Radionuclide An atom which spontaneously emits particles, gamma or x‑ray radiation.

    Respirator A personal device designed to protect the wearer from the inhalation of hazardous atmosphere.

    Respiratory inlet covering That portion of a respirator, which connects the wearer's respiratory tract to an air purifying device or respirable gas source, or both. It may be a facepiece, helmet, hood, suit or mouth piece/nose clamp.

    Sanitization The removal of contaminants and the inhibiting of the action of the agents that causes infection or disease.

    Self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) An atmosphere supplying respirator in which the respirable gas source is designed to be carried by the wearer.

    Service life The period of time that a respirator provides adequate protection to the wearer.

    Sorbent A material which is contained in a cartridge or canister and removes specific gases and vapors from the inhaled air.

    Supervisor An individual who is immediately responsible for overseeing and directing workers who use respirator.

    Tight fitting facepiece A respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a complete seal with the face.

    Time-weighted average (TWA) The average concentration of a contaminant in air during a specific time period.

    Vapor The gaseous phase of matter which normally exists in a liquid or solid state at room temperature.

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    APPENDIX B

    TYPES OF RESPIRATORS

    DESCRIPTION AND LIMITATIONS

    I. INTRODUCTION
    Respirators are divided into classes or types; air purifying and air supplying. In addition, these devices may be either tight‑fitting, usually in the form of a facepiece which covers at least the nose and mouth, or loose‑fitting, which covers the head and, in some cases, the body. An important aspect of respirator operation and classification is the pressure within the facepiece. The facepiece pressure may be above or below the outside air pressure. If facepiece pressure is lower than the outside air pressure, it is classified as negative; if above, it is positive. The concept of negative and positive pressure operation is extremely important when considering potential contaminant leakage into the respirator.

    A. Tight‑fitting Respirators

    A tight‑fitting respirator usually has a facepiece of molded rubber or plastic which adheres to the skin of the wearer. These units are usually available in three categories‑‑quarter mask, half mask, and full face mask.

    B. Loose‑fitting Respirators
    In this case, breathing air is supplied by a hose which is attached to a helmet or suit. The air could be supplied from an external source or from a tank worn by the individual. For this type of unit, it is important that a sufficient quantity of air be provided to the wearer to ensure that there is an outward flow of air so that contaminants do not enter the breathing zone.

    C. Negative‑Pressure Respirators
    This type of respirator must have a tight‑fitting facepiece. Air‑purifying respirators are the most common negative pressure devices, although some air‑supplied respirators also operate in the negative pressure mode. These air‑purifying devices may be further divided into two major classes‑‑aerosol removing, and vapor and gas removing. In the former case, the removal process depends primarily on the size of the aerosol, regardless of the aerosol composition. In the latter case, the vapor or gas is absorbed onto an activated charcoal media or chemical, which may be selective in the material absorbed.

    1. Aerosols are removed from the breathing air by a variety of filters. All filtration mechanisms depend on passing the air through a fibrous media of some type. The mechanisms of impaction, interception, and diffusion are directly related to the size of the aerosol and the filter medium being used. Along with mechanical entrapment methods such as air impaction, various additives can be applied to the filter medium to increase efficiency. The most common additive is a resin with a high dielectric constant. As particles lodge on the filter, breathing resistance increases. This factor creates an excellent end of service‑life indicator.
    2. Dust and mist filters. Almost all approved dust filters also have an approval for mist. While some disposable respirators are made of fiberglass, most other dust/mist filters are made either of synthetic fibers, resin‑impregnated wool, or synthetic fiber felt materials. The fiber media for disposables are usually thinner than the dust/mist filters.
    3. Fume filters are used for protection against metal fumes such as those generated by welding. They are being replaced by high efficiency filters‑‑thin sheets of filter material with small fiber diameter and high resistance to flow per unit area. The high efficiency filter must be 99.97 percent efficient against 0.3 um dioctyl phthalate aerosol. The high efficiency filter was originally designed for use in atmospheres containing radioactive particulates. However, its efficiency has made it popular for use with all highly toxic particulates.
    4. Gas and vapor sorption respirators use a chemical bed either to adsorb or absorb the contaminant in question. The danger with this method is that of possible breakthrough of the chemical in question before the work period is completed. The most effective technique to counter this hazard is to calculate a conservative breakthrough time and change cartridges or connectors at that time. Ideally, cartridges should be disposed of after each day's activity.
    5. Universal canisters type N do not offer the same duration of protection from a specific contaminant as does a canister which is designed for the contaminant in question. Universal canisters should be replaced after each use and they should never be used if only one specific contaminant is expected.
    6. Pesticide cartridges and canisters were at one time tested against various pesticides. This program is no longer in existence. Now they are tested to prove whether they furnish protection against aerosols as well as organic vapors.
    7. Combination. Cartridges and canisters are also designed to be combined to protect against aerosols and organic vapors. However, the size and weight of these cartridges may cause breakage of the face seal on most half‑face respirators. A full‑face respirator should be used when these types of cartridges are required. The issue of combination cartridge leakage will be determined by ANFT.

    D.Air Supplied Respirators

    1. This type of unit depends on air or oxygen supplied from an external source. The air or oxygen can be supplied in a demand, pressure demand, or continuous mode. When wearers of this type of respirator carry their own air or oxygen source, the unit is classified as either a closed circuit or open circuit breathing apparatus.
    2. In the demand mode, a negative pressure is required inside the facepiece to open a valve and permit air to enter the respirator. The negative pressure may draw contaminated air through any gaps in the facepiece‑to‑face seal.
    3. The pressure‑demand mode allows a positive pressure to build up inside the facepiece. Thus, any leaks in the facepiece‑to‑face seal will result in air flowing out of the face mask. This feature will prevent any contaminated air from entering the face mask as long as the maximum flow rate of the regulator is not exceeded as a result of rigorous activity by the wearer.
    4. In the continuous mode, air is constantly flowing to the respirator user, usually from an air compressor or compressed air tank. The flow must be regulated so that the user gets as much air as he needs, as well as additional air flow sufficient to maintain the pressure inside the mask.
    5. An open circuit SCBA consists of a compressed air tank, an air line and regulator, and a facepiece from which the expired air is exhausted to the outside environment.
    6. A closed circuit SCBA does not exhaust the expired air to the outside. After the carbon dioxide has been removed from the exhaled air, it is placed in a breathing bag internal to the unit. At that point, oxygen is injected into the breathing bag and mixed with the expended air. This atmosphere is then supplied to the user.

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    E. Powered Air‑Purifying Respirators (PAPR)

    1. Essentially, the powered devices are air‑purifying respirators with an electrically operated blower inserted between the facepiece and the air‑purifying element to provide the energy necessary to force air through the air‑purifying unit and into the facepiece.
    2. These respirators, however, are for air‑purifying only and must never be used in an oxygen‑deficient atmosphere.

    II. TYPES OF RESPIRATORS

    A. AIR‑PURIFYING RESPIRATORS

    a.General Description
    Half‑mask, full facepiece, or mouthpiece respirators equipped with air purifying units (filter, cartridge, or canister) to remove gases, vapors, and particulate matter from the ambient air prior to its inhalation. Some air‑purifying respirators are blower‑operated and provide respirable air to the facepiece, helmet, or hood.

    b. General Limitations

    i. Air‑purifying respirators do not protect against oxygen‑deficient atmospheres or against skin irritation by, or absorption through the skin, of airborne contaminants.
    ii. The maximum contaminant concentration against which an air‑purifying respirator will protect is determined by the designed efficiency and maximum concentration for which the unit is effective. The protection provided by these respirators is dependent on canister, cartridge, filter‑type, concentration of contaminant, and the wearer's respiratory rate. As a limit, all chemical cartridges, as well as any universal chemical canisters, should preferably be discarded after each day's use. The proper type of cartridge, canister, or filter must be selected for the particular atmosphere and conditions.
    iii. Air‑purifying respirators may cause discomfort and objectionable resistance to breathing, and are of limited value in an atmosphere immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH).

    1.Gas and Vapor Removing Respirators

    a. Description
    Packed sorbent beds (cartridge or canister) remove single gases or vapors (e.g., chlorine gas), a single class of gases or vapors (e.g. organic vapors), or a combination of two or more classes of gases and vapors (e.g. acid gases, organic vapors. ammonia, and carbon monoxide) by absorption, chemical reaction or a combination of these methods.

    b. Limitations
    No protection is provided against particulate contaminants, unless specified on canister or cartridge label. Their use should be avoided in atmospheres where the contaminants lack sufficient warning properties (e.g. odor, taste, or irritation).

    2. Particulate‑Removing Respirators
    a. Description
    These include all completely assembled respirators designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into a hazardous particulate atmosphere which contains adequate oxygen to support life. They are equipped with filters to remove a single type of particulate matter (e.g. dust) or a combination of particulate matter (e.g. dust and fumes) from air.
    b. Limitations
    Protection against non‑volatile particles only. No protection against gases and vapors.

    i) Half‑Mask Facepieces
    Fabric covering is permissible only in atmosphere of coarse dusts and mists of low toxicity. No protection is provided for the eyes.
    ii) Mouthpiece Respirator
    Nose clip must be firmly in place to prevent nasal breathing. Mouth breathing prevents the detection of any incidental vapor contaminants by odor. No protection is provided for the eyes.


    3.Combination Gas, Vapor, and Particulate Removing Respirators

    a. Description
    Includes all the devices discussed having either canisters or cartridges with filters for protection against dusts, mists, fumes, gases, and vapors. These include respirators which have been tested against lacquer and enamel mists (paint spray respirators).
    b. Limitations
    The same limitations, as discussed for the other devices, also apply to the combination device, with the exception that it protects against gases, vapors and particulates.

    4. Powered Air‑Purifying Respirators (PAPR)

    a. Description
    Air is drawn through a filter by a pump before it is delivered to the wearer. This airstream has the advantage of providing a cooling effect in warm temperatures. These respirators do not restrict mobility.
    b. Limitations
    They are bulky, complex in design, and need continual maintenance as. for example, replacement of air‑purifying elements. The battery has a limited life and the blower will have to be replaced periodically. Out‑of‑doors use presents special problems if hot or very cold air is supplied to the respiratory inlet covering.

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    B. ATMOSPHERE SUPPLYING RESPIRATORS

    a. General Description
    A respirable atmosphere is supplied independent of the ambient air surrounding the wearer. These devices provide protection against oxygen deficiency and most toxic atmospheres.
    b. General Limitations
    Except for the supplied‑air suit, no protection is provided against skin irritation by materials such as ammonia and hydrochloric acid (HCl), or against absorption through the skin of such materials as hydrocyanic acid (HCN), tritium, or organophosphate pesticides. Facepieces present special problems for individuals required to wear prescription lenses.


    1. Self‑Contained Breathing Apparatus
    a. Description
    Includes all completely assembled, portable, self‑contained devices designed for use as respiratory protection during entry into and/or escape from hazardous atmospheres. A supply of air, oxygen, or oxygen‑generating material is carried by the wearer. Its use is permissible in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH).

    i) Closed‑circuit apparatus
    An apparatus of the type in which the exhalation is rebreathed by the wearer after the carbon dioxide has been effectively removed and a suitable oxygen concentration restored by a compressed or liquid oxygen source or an oxygen‑generating solid.

    ii) Open‑circuit apparatus
    An apparatus of the following types from which exhalation is vented to the atmosphere and not rebreathed.

    x) Demand type apparatus
    An apparatus in which the pressure inside the facepiece in relation to the immediate environment is positive during exhalation and negative during inhalation. The demand value permits oxygen or air‑flow only during inhalation.

    y) Pressure‑demand type apparatus
    An apparatus in which the pressure inside the facepiece in relation to the immediate environment is positive during both exhalation and inhalation. A warning device is provided to inform the wearer when the service‑life is at a low level


    b. Limitations
    The period of protection is limited by the amount of air or oxygen, the ambient atmospheric pressure, and the workload. Those SCBAs designed only for escape (self‑rescue) from an IDLH atmosphere provide only a few minutes of service. The chief limitations of SCBAs are their weight and bulk, their limited service‑life, and the training required for their maintenance and safe use.

    i) Closed‑circuit apparatus
    The closed‑circuit operation conserves oxygen and permits longer service‑life.
    ii) Open‑circuit demand and pressure demand
    The demand type features a negative pressure in the facepiece on inhalation whereas the pressure‑demand type maintains a positive pressure in the facepiece and is less likely to permit inward leakage of contaminants.


    2. Supplied‑Air Respirators

    a. Description
    The air is supplied from an uncontaminated source through a hose. The source could be either a hand or motor‑operated air blower or compressed air.
    b. Limitations
    The wearer's movements are restricted by the hose and he must return to a respirable atmosphere by retracing his route of entry. The hose may be severed or pinched off or the source may fail.

    i) Hose mask
    There are two types of hose mask with blower; hand‑operated or a motor driven blower; and there is a hose mask without blower, where the wearer provides the motivating force to pull air through the hose.
    The hose inlet must be located in a respirable atmosphere. Blower could fail, or hose pinched off. The length of hose may restrict application of the device.
    ii) Air‑line Respirators
    These are of either the continuous flow type, the demand type, or the pressure demand type. The respirable air is supplied through a hose from a compressor or compressed air cylinder. The hose is attached to the wearer by belt and a flow control value is provided to govern the rate of air‑flow.
    These respirators provide no protection if air supply fails. Some contaminants, such as tritium, may penetrate the material of an air‑line suite. Other contaminants, such as fluorine, may react chemically with the material of an air‑line suite and damage it.

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    G. EMERGENCY EGRESS RESPIRATORS

    1. Combination Supplied‑Air/Air‑purifying Respirators
    a. General Description
    These may be either air‑purifying or air‑supplying. The air‑purifying variety usually consists of a mouthpiece device with nose clamp and small canister, or a tight‑fitting gas mask with full facepiece, air hose, and large canister. Air‑supplying devices are usually continuous flow devices with a universal hood over the user's head, or light weight short service‑time demand SCBA type units which utilize a full, tight‑fitting facepiece. Continuous‑flow devices may use compressed air or generate oxygen.
    b. General Limitations

    i) The mouthpiece‑nose clamp device affords no protection for the wearer's eyes. In addition, this device must be used with extreme care‑‑if the nose‑clamp is not properly positioned, the protection received by the wearer may be reduced.
    ii) A gas mask should be used for escape from and not for entry into an IDLH atmosphere. The gas mask has the same limitations as any air‑purifying respirator; if the full facepiece does not fit properly due to improper size, facial hair, or eyeglasses, the protection factor of this device will be reduced. These devices may not be used in an oxygen deficient atmosphere.
    iii) The continuous‑flow self‑contained breathing apparatus with a universal hood will eliminate problems with improper fitting. However, many individuals experience difficulty slipping the plastic bag neck seal over their heads. This device is subject to over‑breathing effects since it is a continuous‑flow device. Because the air flow is insufficient to supply the needs of a wearer who becomes extremely excited and attempts a rapid egress from a dangerous situation, most manufacturers of these devices recommend that an individual stay calm and walk away from a serious situation. US Air Force tests on these devices show that, under rapid egress conditions, the oxygen in the hood drops to a dangerously low level while the level of carbon dioxide increases. Since the hood is not tight‑fitting, contaminants migrate up through the neck seal if the wearer over breathes the unit. If this type of unit is over‑stressed in an oxygen deficient atmosphere, oxygen levels within the hood are further reduced.
    iv) Short service time‑demand and pressure‑demand SCBA escape units are bulky and some individuals may find them uncomfortable. Proper face fit is important, especially with the demand units.

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    APPENDIX C

    PROTECTION FACTORS FOR RESPIRATORS

    TYPE OF RESPIRATOR100
    APF
    I. Air‑purifying Respiratorsa

    Disposable Dust Mask;
    Particulate Filter Half Maskb
    Particulate Filter Full Facepiece
    Vapor and Gas Removing Half Mask
    Vapor and Gas Removing Full Facepiece
    Combination Particulate Filter and Vapor/ Gas Removing

    5
    10
    100
    10
    100

    A.With Half Mask
    B.With Full Facepiece

    Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPR) c

    A.loose fitting hood or helmet
    B.tight fitting half mask
    C.tight fitting full facepiece

    II.Air supplying Respirators

    Airline demand type half mask
    Airline demand type full facepiece
    SCBA demand type half mask
    SCBA demand type full facepiece
    SCBA pressure demand full facepiece

    III.Combination of Air purifying and Air Supplying Respirators

    Air Purifying with HEPA filter and full facepiece
    PAPR with tight fitting and HEPA filtered
    Supplied air in pressure demand or positive pressure mode, full facepiece in combination with SCBA in pressure demand or positive pressure mode

    APF Assigned Protection Factor HEPA High Efficiency Particulate Air IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health PAPR Powered Air Purifying Respirator &SCBA Self Contained Breathing Apparatus

    10
    100

    25
    50
    250


    10
    100
    10
    100
    10000

    50
    50
    10000

    Air‑purifying respirators may not be used in oxygen deficient environments.
    B Only full facepiece respirators are to be used in contaminant concentrations, which produce eye irritation.
    C Only high efficiency filters are permitted for protection against particulates having exposure limits less than 0.05 mg/cm3

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    APPENDIX D

    TRAINING GUIDELINES FOR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION

    I.RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
    A. Hazards

    1. O2 deficiency
    2. Air contaminants gas, vapor, and particulate, eye irritants
    3. Toxicology of air contaminant

    B.Routes of Entry

    1. Oral
    2. Dermal
    3.Inhalation

    C.Comparison and Importance

    II.CONTROL OF HAZARDS
    A. Engineering Control

    1. Substitution
    2. Containment
    3. Proper ventilation

    A. local exhaust
    B. general exhaust

    B.Administrative Control

    1. Rotation
    2. Limiting access

    C.Use of Personal Protection Equipment

    1. use of respirators

    III.REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS

    1. OSHA requirements
    2. University Policy

    IV.TYPES OF RESPIRATORS
    A. Air Purifying Respirators

    1. advantages and disadvantages
    2. particulate removal type
    3. vapor and gas type
    4. powered and non‑powered

    B.Atmosphere Supplying Respirators

    1. advantages and disadvantages
    2. airline respirator
    3. self‑contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
    4. combination

    V.SELECTION OF A RESPIRATOR
    A. Criteria for selection

    1. nature of hazard
    2. concentration and toxicity
    3. duration of exposure
    4. characteristics of toxic processes
    5. O2 deficiency

    B. Respirator Protection Factors

    C. Emergency

    1. recognition and handling

    D. IDLH

    VI. MEDICAL EVALUATION
    A. Importance
    B. Frequency

    VII. FIT‑TESTING
    A. Reason for Fit‑Testing
    B. Type of Fit‑Testing

    1. quantitative
    2. qualitative

    C. Frequency of Fit‑Testing
    D. Factors Affecting Fit‑Testing

    VIII. MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE

    A. Inspection

    1. inspection for defects
    2. inspection of air‑purifying respirators
    3. inspection of atmosphere‑supplying respirators
    4. inspection during cleaning

    B.Cleaning and Disinfecting

    1. cleaning
    2. rinsing
    3. drying
    4. disinfecting
    5. reassembly

    C. Storage

    1. avoid exposure to dust, sunlight, temperature extremes, excessive moisture, chemicals, etc.
    2. use proper plastic bags for storage

    IX.RESPONSIBILITIES

    A. Supervisor
    B. Employees
    C. E H & S
    D. Employees Health Services
    E. Employees

    X. ACTUAL FIT‑TESTING

    A. Proper selection of respirators by employees
    B. Demonstration of donning and doffing
    C. Discomfort Check
    D. Difficulty in Breathing
    E. Proper Placement
    F. Demonstration of Negative and Positive Fit Check
    G. Noting Any Unusual Signs and Symptoms
    H. Performing Qualitative Fit‑Testing as Described in Appendix E.

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    APPENDIX E

    QUALITATIVE FIT‑TESTING PROTOCOL

    I. REQUIREMENTS

    Before any kind of fit‑testing is done, each test subject must have written approval from the University Occupational Health Physician attesting that the individual is physically able to wear a respirator.

    II. PROCEDURE

    Irritant smoke can be used for both types of respirators. Air‑purifying respirators should be tested with a commercially available smoke tube normally used to check the performance of a ventilation system.

    Adequate ventilation should be provided when carrying out tests to prevent contamination of the room; or they should be conducted in a room that is not used for selection and fitting. The test subject must keep his/her eyes closed during the test.

    The following procedure for fit‑testing should be followed:

    A.Respirator Selection

    1. Only NIOSH approved respirators should be recommended for use.

    2. test subject should be allowed to select, from a variety of respirators, the one that is most comfortable.

    3. Preferably, the fitting process should be conducted in a room separate from the fit test room to prevent contamination of the room. Prior to the selection, the test subject should be shown how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension, and how to assess "comfort".

    4. Assessment of comfort will include reviewing the following points with the test subject:

    . proper chin placement
    . positioning of mask on nose
    . strap tension
    . fitting across nose bridge
    . room for safety glasses
    . distance from nose to chin
    . room to talk
    . tendency to slip
    . cheeks filled out
    . self‑observation in mirror
    . adequate time for assessment

    5. The test subject will conduct the conventional positive‑and negative‑pressure fit cheeks (e.g. see ANSI Z88.1‑1980), as described below. Before conducting these cheeks, the subject will be told to seat the mask by rapidly moving the head side‑to‑side and up and down, taking a few deep breaths.

    6. At this time, the test subject is ready for fit‑testing.

    7. After passing the fit‑test, the test subject will be questioned again regarding the comfort of the respirator. If it has become uncomfortable, another model should be tried.

    B. Negative Pressure Test

    The test subject should conduct this test after the selection of a comfortable respirator. It consists of closing off the inlet of the canister, cartridge, or filter (by covering with the palms or replacing the seals, or by squeezing the breathing tube so that air does not go through), then inhaling gently so that the facepiece collages slightly, and holding the breath for ten seconds. If the facepiece remains slightly collapsed and no leakage is detected, the respirator is considered tight enough. This test can be used only on respirators with tight‑fitting facepieces.

    C. Positive Pressure Test

    Very much like the negative pressure test, this test is conducted by closing off the exhalation valve and exhaling gently into the facepiece. The fit is considered satisfactory if slight positive pressure can be build up inside the facepiece without any evidence of outward leakage. The test has some limitations. depending on the type of respirator selected, which should be considered before making the test.

    D. Fit‑Testing

    1.Each respirator used for fitting and fit‑testing will be equipped with organic vapor cartridges or offer protection against organic vapors. The cartridges will be changed at least weekly.
    2. After selecting, donning, and properly adjusting a respirator, the test subject shall wear it to the fit‑testing room.
    3. Each test subject will wear the respirator for at least ten minutes before starting the fit‑test.
    4. The test subject should perform the following exercises for about one minute:

    a. Normal breathing

    b. Deep breathing

    c. Turning head from side‑to‑side, taking care that the movement is complete, the respirator is not bumped on the shoulders, and inhalation is done at either side.

    d. Nodding head up a down, with complete motions at a frequency of one per second and making sure that the respirator remains tight.
    e. Talking. Talk aloud and slowly for several minutes.

    f. Normal breathing.

    5. If the irritant smoke causes the test subject to cough, the test should be stopped, the respirator rejected, and another one selected.

    6.& Each test subject who passes the smoke test without evidence of a response is given a sensitivity check of the smoke from the same tube to determine whether the subject reacts to the smoke. Failure to evoke a response voids the fit‑test.

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    APPENDIX F

    PROCEDURES FOR CLEANING AND SANITIZING RESPIRATORS

    The following procedures may be used for cleaning and sanitizing respirators. Unless the manufacturer's instructions specify different.

    1. When necessary, remove the following components of respirators‑inlet covering assemblies before cleaning and sanitizing.

    a. Filter, cartridge, canisters;
    b. Speaking diaphragms;
    c. Demand and pressure demand valves assemblies; and
    d. Any components recommended by the respirator manufacturer.

    2.; Wash respiratory‑inlet covering assemblies in warm (490 C to 1200F maximum temperature) cleaner sanitizer solution. A stiff bristle (not wire) brush may be used to facilitate removal of dirt or other foreign material.

    3. Rinse respiratory inlet covering assemblies in clean, warm (490C or 1200F.) water.

    4. Drain all water and air‑dry the respiratory‑inlet covering assemblies.

    5. Clean and sanitize all parts removed from respiratory‑inlet covering as recommended by the manufacturer.

    6. Hand‑wipe respiratory‑inlet covering assemblies, all parts, and all gaskets and valve sealing surfaces with damp lint‑free clothe as needed to remove water residue and all foreign materials.

    7. Inspect parts and replace any, which are defective.

    8. Reassemble parts on respiratory‑inlet covering assemblies.

    9. Attach new filters, cartridges, and canisters to respiratory‑inlet covering.

    10. Visually inspect and, where possible, test parts and respirator assemblies for proper function.

    11.& Place assembled respirators in appropriate containers for storage.

    Machines may be used to expedite the cleaning, sanitizing, rinsing, and drying of large numbers of respirators. Extreme care must be taken to ensure against tumbling, agitation, or exposure to temperatures above those recommended by the manufacturer (normally 490C or 1200F maximum), as these condition are likely to result in damage to the respirators. Ultrasonic cleaners, clothes‑washing machines, dishwasher, and clothes dryers have been specially adapted and successfully used for cleaning and drying respirators. Cleaner sanitizers that effectively clean the respirator and contain a bactericidal agent are commercially available. The bactericidal agent frequently used is a quaternary ammonium compound.

    Strong cleaning and sanitizing agents and many solvents can damage rubber or elastomeric respirators parts. These materials must be used with caution.

    Alternatively, respirators may be washed in a detergent solution and then sanitized by immersion in sanitizing solution. Some solutions, which have proven effective, are:

      1. a hypochlorite solution (50ppm chlorine), a two minute immersion;
      2. an aqueous iodine solution (50ppm iodine), two minute immersion; or
      3. a quaternary ammonium solution (200ppm of quaternary ammonium compounds in water with less than 500ppm total hardness), two minute immersion.

    Different concentrations of quaternary ammonium salts are required to achieve a sanitizing solution with waters of various hardness. Inflammation of the user's skin (dermatitis) may occur if the quaternary ammonium compounds are not completely rinsed from the respirator. The hypochlorite and iodine solutions are unstable and break down as time progresses; they may cause deterioration of rubber or other elastomeric parts and may be corrosive to metallic parts. Immersion times should not be extended beyond the mentioned time periods, and the sanitizers must be thoroughly rinsed from the respirator parts. Manufacturer's recommendations should be observed.

    Respirators may become contaminated with toxic materials. If the contamination is light, normal cleaning procedures should provide satisfactory decontamination; otherwise separate decontamination steps may be required before cleaning.

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    EH&S Department Information:

    Morningside Campus
    Environmental Health and Safety
    S.W. Mudd Building, Suite 350
    500 West 120th Street
    Mail Code
    New York, New York 10027
    212-854-8749 (Phone)
    212-316-4937 (Fax)
    Mail Code: 2215
    ehrs@columbia.edu

    Medical Center Campus
    Environmental Health and Safety, Box 8
    630 West 168 Street
    New York, NY 10032
    212-305-6780 (phone)
    212-305-0318 (Fax)
    ehs-hs@columbia.edu